A normal brain (left) and one with CTE (right)
Microscopy of a cell with neurofibrillary tangles (marked by arrows).
Diagram of how microtubules disintegrate with Alzheimer's disease
Overview of RNA interference.

For example, the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), previously called dementia pugilistica, is highly associated with NFTs and neuropil threads.

- Neurofibrillary tangle

Supporting features of CTE are: superficial neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs); p–tau in CA2 and CA4 hippocampus; p-tau in: mammillary bodies, hypothalamic nuclei, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, midbrain tegmentum, nucleus basalis of Meynert, raphe nuclei, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus; p-tau thorn-shaped astrocytes (TSA) in the subpial region; p-tau dot-like neurites.

- Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
A normal brain (left) and one with CTE (right)

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Diagram of a normal microtubule and one affected by tauopathy

Tauopathy

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Diagram of a normal microtubule and one affected by tauopathy
Diagram of a normal microtubule and one affected by tauopathy
Abnormal accumulation of tau protein in neuronal cell bodies (arrow) and neuronal extensions (arrowhead) in the neocortex of a patient who died with Alzheimer's disease. The bar = 25 microns (0.025 millimeters).

Tauopathy belongs to a class of neurodegenerative diseases involving the aggregation of tau protein into neurofibrillary or gliofibrillary tangles (Neurofibrillary tangle) in the human brain.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

Neurons were grown in tissue culture and stained with antibody to MAP2 protein in green and MAP tau in red using the immunofluorescence technique. MAP2 is found only in dendrites and perikarya, while tau is found not only in the dendrites and perikarya but also in axons. As a result, axons appear red while the dendrites and perikarya appear yellow, due to superimposition of the red and green signals. DNA is shown in blue using the DAPI stain which highlights the nuclei. Image courtesy EnCor Biotechnology Inc.

Tau protein

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The tau proteins (abbreviated from tubulin associated unit ) are a group of six highly soluble protein isoforms produced by alternative splicing from the gene MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau).

The tau proteins (abbreviated from tubulin associated unit ) are a group of six highly soluble protein isoforms produced by alternative splicing from the gene MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau).

Neurons were grown in tissue culture and stained with antibody to MAP2 protein in green and MAP tau in red using the immunofluorescence technique. MAP2 is found only in dendrites and perikarya, while tau is found not only in the dendrites and perikarya but also in axons. As a result, axons appear red while the dendrites and perikarya appear yellow, due to superimposition of the red and green signals. DNA is shown in blue using the DAPI stain which highlights the nuclei. Image courtesy EnCor Biotechnology Inc.

Pathologies and dementias of the nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are associated with tau proteins that have become hyperphosphorylated insoluble aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles.

It can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a condition characterized by fibrillar tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau.

A person with progressive dementia, ataxia, and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing, abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected. A sagittal view of the CT/MRI scan shows atrophy of the midbrain, with preservation of the volume of the pons. This appearance has been called the "hummingbird sign" or "penguin sign". Also, atrophy of the tectum is seen, particularly the superior colliculi. These findings suggest the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

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Late-onset degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.

Late-onset degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.

A person with progressive dementia, ataxia, and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing, abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected. A sagittal view of the CT/MRI scan shows atrophy of the midbrain, with preservation of the volume of the pons. This appearance has been called the "hummingbird sign" or "penguin sign". Also, atrophy of the tectum is seen, particularly the superior colliculi. These findings suggest the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy.

The neurons display neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are clumps of tau protein, a normal part of a brain cell's internal structural skeleton.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy shows many similarities with PSP.