Cicero

Marcus Tullius CiceroCiceronianTullyMarcus CiceroMarcusTullian Cicero Ciceronian humanistCic.Cicero, M. Tullius
Marcus Tullius Cicero (, ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.wikipedia
2,740 Related Articles

Philippicae

PhilippicsPhilippicseries of speeches
Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches.
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero gave condemning Mark Antony in 44 and 43 BC.

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius Cæsar
During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government.
Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero.

Petrarch

Francesco PetrarcaPetrarcaFrancesco Petrarch
Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture.
Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian Renaissance and the founding of Renaissance humanism.

Mark Antony

Marcus AntoniusMarc AntonyAntony
Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches.
According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, and was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively.

List of Roman civil wars and revolts

civil warsRoman civil warsRoman Civil War
During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government.

Humanitas

studia humanitatis
Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as evidentia, humanitas, qualitas, quantitas, and essentia), distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher.
Cicero (106–43 BC) used humanitas in describing the formation of an ideal speaker (orator) who he believed should be educated to possess a collection of virtues of character suitable both for an active life of public service and a decent and fulfilling private life; these would include a fund of learning acquired from the study of bonae litterae ("good letters", i.e., classical literature, especially poetry), which would also be a source of continuing cultivation and pleasure in leisure and retirement, youth and old age, and good and bad fortune.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
His influence on the Latin language was immense: it has been said that subsequent prose was either a reaction against or a return to his style, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century.
Philological analysis of Archaic Latin works, such as those of Plautus, which contain snippets of everyday speech, indicates that a spoken language, Vulgar Latin (termed sermo vulgi, "the speech of the masses", by Cicero), existed concurrently with literate Classical Latin.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Marcus Tullius Cicero (, ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The latter groups supported the Catilinarian conspiracy—a resounding failure, since the consul Marcus Tullius Cicero quickly arrested and executed the main leaders of the conspiracy.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture.
Broadly speaking, this began in the 14th century with a Latin phase, when Renaissance scholars such as Petrarch, Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406), Niccolò de' Niccoli (1364–1437) and Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459) scoured the libraries of Europe in search of works by such Latin authors as Cicero, Lucretius, Livy and Seneca.

Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (consul 115 BC)

Marcus Aemilius ScaurusM. Aemilius ScaurusMarcus Scaurus
Plutarch writes that Cicero was urged to change this deprecatory name when he entered politics, but refused, saying that he would make Cicero more glorious than Scaurus ("Swollen-ankled") and Catulus ("Puppy").
Scaurus was born c. 163 BC into a prestigious but impoverished patrician family: Cicero for instance comments that Scaurus was so poor that he was effectively a novus homo.

Titus Pomponius Atticus

AtticusLetters to AtticusPomponius Atticus
Cicero's fellow students were Gaius Marius Minor, Servius Sulpicius Rufus (who became a famous lawyer, one of the few whom Cicero considered superior to himself in legal matters), and Titus Pomponius.
110 – 31 March 32 BC; also known as Quintus Caecilius Pomponianus) was a Roman editor, banker, and patron of letters, best known for his correspondence and close friendship with prominent Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero.

Roman consul

consulsuffect consulconsulship
Marcus Tullius Cicero (, ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Nevertheless, the office remained largely in the hands of a few families as, according to Gelzer, only fifteen novi homines - "new men" with no consular background - were elected to the consulship until the election of Cicero in 63 BC.

Asiatic style

Asiatic schoolAsianismAsiatic
Charting a middle path between the competing Attic and Asiatic styles, Cicero would ultimately become considered second only to Demosthenes among history's orators.
The Asiatic style or Asianism (genus orationis Asiaticum, Cicero, Brutus 325) refers to an Ancient Greek rhetorical tendency (though not an organized school) that arose in the third century BC, which, although of minimal relevance at the time, briefly became an important point of reference in later debates about Roman oratory.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu and Edmund Burke was substantial.
At first, because of his family, he considered a career in law, but came to have, in his words, "an insurmountable aversion to everything but the pursuits of Philosophy and general Learning; and while [my family] fanceyed I was poring over Voet and Vinnius, Cicero and Virgil were the Authors which I was secretly devouring".

Terentia

Cicero married Terentia probably at the age of 27, in 79 BC.
Terentia (98 BC – 6 AD) was the wife of the renowned orator Marcus Tullius Cicero.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
Cicero was therefore educated in the teachings of the ancient Greek philosophers, poets and historians; as he obtained much of his understanding of the theory and practice of rhetoric from the Greek poet Archias and from the Greek rhetorician Apollonius.
More trusting in the power of rhetoric to support a republic, the Roman orator Cicero argued that art required something more than eloquence.

Demosthenes

Démosthène Demosthenes Demosthenem
Charting a middle path between the competing Attic and Asiatic styles, Cicero would ultimately become considered second only to Demosthenes among history's orators.
And Cicero said about him that inter omnis unus excellat ("he stands alone among all the orators") and also acclaimed him as "the perfect orator" who lacked nothing.

Tullia (daughter of Cicero)

TulliaTullia M. f. M. n.
Although his marriage to Terentia was one of convenience, it is commonly known that Cicero held great love for his daughter Tullia.
Tullia, sometimes referred to affectionately as Tulliola ("Little Tullia", 5 August 79 or 78 BC – February 45 BC), was the first child and only daughter of Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero, by his first marriage to Terentia.

Servius Sulpicius Rufus

Sulpicus RufusSulpicius Rufusconsul of 51 BC
Cicero's fellow students were Gaius Marius Minor, Servius Sulpicius Rufus (who became a famous lawyer, one of the few whom Cicero considered superior to himself in legal matters), and Titus Pomponius.
He studied rhetoric with Cicero, accompanying him to Rhodes in 78 BC, though Sulpicius decided subsequently to pursue legal studies.

Cicero Minor

MarcusMarcus Tullius Cicero MinorCicero
Cicero hoped that his son Marcus would become a philosopher like him, but Marcus himself wished for a military career.
He was the son of Marcus Tullius Cicero, who as a distinguished orator and consular senator was one of the leading figures of the Roman Republic during the 1st century BC, and his first wife, Terentia.

Second Triumvirate

triumvirstriumvirTreaty of Brundisium
He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula.
The most notable victims were Marcus Tullius Cicero, who had opposed Caesar and excoriated Antony in his Philippicae, and Marcus Favonius, a follower of Cato and an opponent of both triumvirates.

List of patricides

patricidepatricidalfather
His first major public case, of which a written record is still extant, was his 80 BC defense of Sextus Roscius on the charge of patricide.
For example, according to Marcus Tullius Cicero, in the Roman Republic it was the only criminal act for which the punishment was an execution.

Antiochus of Ascalon

AntiochusAntiochean PlatonismAntiochean Platonist
In Athens he studied philosophy with Antiochus of Ascalon, the 'Old Academic' and initiator of Middle Platonism.
He was a teacher of Cicero, and the first of a new breed of eclectics among the Platonists; he endeavoured to bring the doctrines of the Stoics and the Peripatetics into Platonism, and stated, in opposition to Philo, that the mind could distinguish true from false.

Lentulus

Cornelii LentuliLentuliLentulus (gens)
The famous family names of Fabius, Lentulus, and Piso come from the Latin names of beans, lentils, and peas, respectively.
Appietas) is coined by Cicero (Ad Fam.

Pro Roscio Amerino

Pro Sexto Roscio AmerinoPro Sexto Roscio
Cicero's case in the Pro Roscio Amerino was divided into three parts.
Pro Roscio Amerino is a defence speech given by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of Sextus Roscius, a Roman citizen from the municipality of Ameria accused of murdering his father.