Ciliary ganglion

Light-near dissociationciliary
The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located just behind the eye in the posterior orbit.wikipedia
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Parasympathetic nervous system

parasympatheticparasympathetic nerveparasympathetic nerves
The oculomotor PNS fibers originate in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the central nervous system and travel through the superior orbital fissure to synapse in the ciliary ganglion located just behind the orbit (eye).

Orbit (anatomy)

orbitorbitseye socket
The orbital contents comprise the eye, the orbital and retrobulbar fascia, extraocular muscles, cranial nerves II, III, IV, V, and VI, blood vessels, fat, the lacrimal gland with its sac and nasolacrimal duct, the eyelids, medial and lateral palpebral ligaments, check ligaments, the suspensory ligament, septum, ciliary ganglion and short ciliary nerves.

Edinger–Westphal nucleus

Edinger-Westphal nucleusEdinger-Westphal
Alternatively, the Edinger–Westphal nucleus is a term often used to refer to the adjacent population of non-preganglionic neurons that do not project to the ciliary ganglion, but rather project to the spinal cord, dorsal raphe nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area and the central nucleus of the amygdala, among other regions

Short ciliary nerves

The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves.

Pterygopalatine ganglion

sphenopalatine ganglionpterygopalatineMeckel's ganglion
(The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and otic ganglion).
It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the others being the submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion, and ciliary ganglion.

Submandibular ganglion

submaxillary ganglionsubmandibularsubmaxillary
(The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and otic ganglion).
(The others are the otic ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and ciliary ganglion).

Otic ganglion

oticotic ganglia
(The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and otic ganglion).
The others are the ciliary ganglion, the submandibular ganglion and the pterygopalatine ganglion.

Ciliary muscle

ciliary musclesciliarycilia
The ciliary muscle receives parasympathetic fibers from the short ciliary nerves that arise from the ciliary ganglion.

Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion

The parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion provides parasympathetic innervation to the ciliary ganglion.

Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion

The sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion is one of three roots of the ciliary ganglion, a tissue mass behind the eye.

Iris sphincter muscle

sphincter pupillaepupillary sphincteriris constrictor muscle
It is controlled by parasympathetic fibers of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3) that originate from the Edinger–Westphal nucleus, travel along the oculomotor nerve (CN III), synapse in the ciliary ganglion, and then enter the eye via the short ciliary nerves.. The short ciliary nerves then run forward and pierce the sclera at the back of the eye, traveling between the sclera and the choroid to innervate the iris sphincter muscle.

Miosis

mioticconstricted pupilsmiotics
Visceromotor nerve axons (which constitute a portion of cranial nerve III, along with the somatomotor portion derived from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus) synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons, whose parasympathetic axons innervate the iris sphincter muscle, producing miosis.

Sensory root of ciliary ganglion

communicating branch to the ciliary ganglionLong root of the ciliary ganglion
Sensory fibers from the eyeball (the cornea, iris, and ciliary body) run posteriorly through the short ciliary nerves and pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses.

Argyll Robertson pupil

Argyll Robertson phenomenonArgyll Robertson pupilsDr Argyll Robertson
Brainstem causes of light-near dissociation include Argyll Robertson pupil and Parinaud syndrome.
In general, pupils that accommodate but do not react are said to show light-near dissociation (i.e., it is the absence of a miotic reaction to light, both direct and consensual, with the preservation of a miotic reaction to near stimulus (accommodation/convergence).

Adie syndrome

Adie's pupiltonic pupilAdie's syndrome
In Adie syndrome, damage involving the ciliary ganglion manifests light-near dissociation and a tonically dilated pupil (usually unilateral).
Pupillary symptoms of Holmes–Adie syndrome are thought to be the result of a viral or bacterial infection that causes inflammation and damage to neurons in the ciliary ganglion, located in the posterior orbit, that provides parasympathetic control of eye constriction.

Autonomic nervous system

autonomicautonomous nervous systemautonomic functions
Both of these muscles are involuntary – they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.