Cinematography

cinematographercinematographiccinemafilmingcinematicphotographedCameraworkcinematographersphotographycamera work
Cinematography (from ancient greek κίνημα, kìnema "movement" and γράφειν, gràphein "to write") is the art of motion-picture photography and filming either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.wikipedia
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Film

motion picturemoviefilms
Cinematography (from ancient greek κίνημα, kìnema "movement" and γράφειν, gràphein "to write") is the art of motion-picture photography and filming either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock. Cinematographers use a lens to focus reflected light from objects into a real image that is transferred to some image sensor or light-sensitive material inside a movie camera.
The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.

Cinematographer

director of photographycinematographersdirectors of photography
Cinematographers use a lens to focus reflected light from objects into a real image that is transferred to some image sensor or light-sensitive material inside a movie camera.
The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography.

Louis Le Prince

Louis Aimé Augustin Le PrinceTraffic Crossing Leeds Bridge
The experimental film Roundhay Garden Scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on 14 October 1888, in Roundhay, Leeds, England, is the earliest surviving motion picture.
Although some have credited him as the "Father of Cinematography", his work did not influence the commercial development of cinema—owing at least in part to the great secrecy surrounding it.

Movie projector

projectorfilm projectorprojectors
The images on the film stock are projected for viewing the motion picture.
The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895.

Eadweard Muybridge

MuybridgeEadward MuybridgeEdweard Muybridge
On 19 June 1878, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named "Sallie Gardner" in fast motion using a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras.
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.

Étienne-Jules Marey

MareyEtienne Jules MareyEtienne-Jules Marey
Nine years later, in 1882, French scientist Étienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic gun, which was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, recording all the frames of the same picture.
His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation, cinematography and the science of laboratory photography.

Movie camera

motion picture cameracameracine camera
Cinematographers use a lens to focus reflected light from objects into a real image that is transferred to some image sensor or light-sensitive material inside a movie camera.
To govern the intermittent movement of the film in the camera, allowing the strip to stop long enough so each frame could be fully exposed and then advancing it quickly (in about 1/460 of a second) to the next frame, the sprocket wheel that engaged the strip was driven by an escapement disc mechanism—the first practical system for the high-speed stop-and-go film movement that would be the foundation for the next century of cinematography.

Kodachrome

filmKodachrome 64Kodachrome reversal colour film
Kodachrome was introduced in 1935.
It was manufactured for 74 years in various formats to suit still and motion picture cameras, including 8 mm, Super 8, 16 mm for movies (exclusively through Eastman Kodak), and 35 mm for movies (exclusively through Technicolor Corp as "Technicolor Monopack") and 35 mm, 120, 110, 126, 828 and large format for still photography.

Cinematograph

Cinématographecinematographekinematograph
In the following year, Charles Francis Jenkins and his projector, the Phantoscope, made a successful audience viewing while Louis and Auguste Lumière perfected the Cinématographe, an apparatus that took, printed, and projected film, in Paris in December 1895.
The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened on 28 December 1895 at Salon Indien du Grand Café in Paris and was organised by the Lumière brothers.

Panning (camera)

panningpanpans
Shots taken using such a "panning" head were also referred to as "panoramas" in the film catalogues of the first decade of the cinema. Techniques range from the most basic movements of panning (horizontal shift in viewpoint from a fixed position; like turning your head side-to-side) and tilting (vertical shift in viewpoint from a fixed position; like tipping your head back to look at the sky or down to look at the ground) to dollying (placing the camera on a moving platform to move it closer or farther from the subject), tracking (placing the camera on a moving platform to move it to the left or right), craning (moving the camera in a vertical position; being able to lift it off the ground as well as swing it side-to-side from a fixed base position), and combinations of the above.
In cinematography and photography panning means swivelling a still or video camera horizontally from a fixed position.

Kinetoscope

KinetographKinetophonepeephole viewing of motion picture devices
W. K. L. Dickson, working under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison, was the first to design a successful apparatus, the Kinetograph, patented in 1891.
To govern the intermittent movement of the film in the camera, allowing the strip to stop long enough so each frame could be fully exposed and then advancing it quickly (in about 1/460 of a second) to the next frame, the sprocket wheel that engaged the strip was driven by an escapement disc mechanism—the first practical system for the high-speed stop-and-go film movement that would be the foundation for the next century of cinematography.

Photographic filter

Filterfiltersphotographic filters
Filters, such as diffusion filters or color effect filters, are also widely used to enhance mood or dramatic effects.
In photography and cinematography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path.

Wide-angle lens

wide-anglewide anglewide
Cinematographers can choose from a range of wide-angle lenses, "normal" lenses and long focus lenses, as well as macro lenses and other special effect lens systems such as borescope lenses.
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane.

Digital cinematography

digital filmdigitallydigital
Most of modern cinema uses digital cinematography and has no film stocks, but the cameras themselves can be adjusted in ways that go far beyond the abilities of one particular film stock.
Beginning in the late 1980s, Sony began marketing the concept of "electronic cinematography," utilizing its analog Sony HDVS professional video cameras.

Anamorphic format

anamorphicanamorphic lens2.39:1
Many different proprietary photographic systems were invented and utilized in the 1950s to create widescreen movies, but one dominated film: the anamorphic process, which optically squeezes the image to photograph twice the horizontal area to the same size vertical as standard "spherical" lenses.
Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.

Shallow focus

shallowfocus is shallowshallow depth of field
Today, the trend is for more shallow focus.
Shallow focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique incorporating a small depth of field.

Technicolor

Technicolor Corporationthree-strip TechnicolorTechnicolour
In 1917, the earliest version of Technicolor was introduced.
That, and the bulk of the cameras and a lack of experience with three-color cinematography made for skepticism in the studio boardrooms.

Multiple exposure

double exposuremulti-exposuredouble exposed
The other basic technique for trick cinematography involves double exposure of the film in the camera, which was first done by George Albert Smith in July 1898 in the UK.
In photography and cinematography, a multiple exposure is the superimposition of two or more exposures to create a single image, and double exposure has a corresponding meaning in respect of two images.

Steadicam

steadycamSteadi-Cam Operatorsteadicam operator
Personal stabilizing platforms came into being in the late 1970s through the invention of Garrett Brown, which became known as the Steadicam.
While these cinematic techniques are still common, the Steadicam has added another dimension to motion picture cinematography and videography.

Tracking shot

dolly shottrackingdollying
Techniques range from the most basic movements of panning (horizontal shift in viewpoint from a fixed position; like turning your head side-to-side) and tilting (vertical shift in viewpoint from a fixed position; like tipping your head back to look at the sky or down to look at the ground) to dollying (placing the camera on a moving platform to move it closer or farther from the subject), tracking (placing the camera on a moving platform to move it to the left or right), craning (moving the camera in a vertical position; being able to lift it off the ground as well as swing it side-to-side from a fixed base position), and combinations of the above.
In cinematography, the term refers to a shot in which the camera is mounted on a camera dolly that is then placed on rails – like a railroad track.

Time-lapse photography

time-lapsetime lapsefast motion
For instance, time-lapse photography is created by exposing an image at an extremely slow rate.
Time-lapse is the extreme version of the cinematography technique of undercranking.

Visions of Light

Visions Of Light: The Art Of Cinematography
The film covers the art of cinematography since the conception of cinema at the turn of the 20th century.

History of film

film historianfilm historyHistory of cinema
Although the start of the history of film is not clearly defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures.

Aspect ratio (image)

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The aspect ratio of an image is the ratio of its width to its height.
Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.

Reverse motion

reverse actingreversedreversed shot
G. A. Smith initiated the technique of reverse motion and also improved the quality of self-motivating images.
Reverse motion (also known as reverse motion photography or reverse action) is a special effect in cinematography whereby the action that is filmed is shown backwards (i.e. time-reversed) on screen.