Cinquecento

Italian for the year 1500.

- Cinquecento

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Mannerism

Style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, spreading by about 1530 and lasting until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style largely replaced it.

In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534–1540), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective.
Mannerism role-model: Laocoön and His Sons, an ancient sculpture, rediscovered in 1506; now in the Vatican Museums. The artists of Mannerism greatly admired this piece of sculpture.
Collected figures, ignudi, from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling
Jacopo Pontormo, Entombment, 1528; Santa Felicità, Florence
English Mannerism: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1546, a rare English Mannerist portrait by a Flemish immigrant
Pietro Francavilla, Apollo Victorious over the Python, 1591. The Walters Art Museum
Joachim Wtewael Perseus and Andromeda, 1616, Louvre, the composition displaying a Vanité of bones and seashells in the foreground and an elaborate academic nude with a palette borrowing from the forefront for Andromeda's cheeks. The Dragon seems of sino-oriental influence.
High Mannerism: Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time by Bronzino, c. 1545; National Gallery, London.
Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592–1594
El Greco, Laocoön (1610–1614), National Gallery of Art
Minerva Dressing (1613) by Lavinia Fontana (1552–1614). Galleria Borghese, Rome.
The Vleeshal in Haarlem, Netherlands
The Town Hall in Zamość, Poland, designed by Bernardo Morando.
Stucco overdoor at Fontainebleau, probably designed by Primaticcio, who painted the oval inset, 1530s or 1540s
Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus with the head of Medusa, 1545–1554
Giambologna, Samson Slaying a Philistine, about 1562
Giambologna, Abduction of a Sabine Woman, completed 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, marble
Adriaen de Vries, Mercury and Psyche Northern Mannerist life-size bronze, made in 1593 for Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Venus, c. 125; Marble, Roman; British Museum
Jacopo Pontormo Joseph in Egypt, 1515–1518; Oil on wood; 96 x 109 cm; National Gallery, London
Rosso Fiorentino, Francois I Gallery, Château de Fontainebleau, France
Juno in a niche, engraving by Jacopo Caraglio, probably from a drawing of 1526 by Rosso Fiorentino
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, The Librarian, 1562, Skokloster Castle.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Autumn, 1573, oil on canvas, Louvre Museum, Paris
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Vertumnus the god of seasons, 1591, Skokloster Castle
Bronzino, Portrait of Bia de' Medici, c. 1545
Alessandro Allori, Susanna and the Elders, 1561
El Greco, Baptism, c. 1614
One of the best examples of Mannerist architecture: Palazzo Te in Mantova, designed by Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano, Pallazo Ducale in Mantova
Own house of Giulio Romano in Mantova
Baldassare Peruzzi, Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome
Michelangelo, vestibule of Laurentian Library
St. John's Co-Cathedral in Valletta, Malta
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador, Brazil, built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.<ref>{{citation |contribution=Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia |contribution-url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/309 |title=World Heritage List |url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/ |publisher=UNESCO |location=Paris }}</ref>
The large Basilica of San Francisco, in Quito, Ecuador, built between 1535-1650.

Castagno demonstrates iconographic linkages between genre painting and the figures of the commedia dell'arte that demonstrate how this theatrical form was embedded within the cultural traditions of the late cinquecento.

Europe

Continent, also recognised as a part of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
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A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
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Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
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Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
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Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

Patrons in Italy, including the Medici family of Florentine bankers and the Popes in Rome, funded prolific quattrocento and cinquecento artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.

Pope Clement VII

Spiritual head on earth of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.

Portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, c. 1531
(oil on canvas; J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles)
Hanging of Bernardo Baroncelli, Leonardo da Vinci, 1479. Pazzi Conspirator.
Giulio Cardinal de' Medici, left; with his cousin Pope Leo X, center; and Luigi Cardinal de' Rossi, right; by Raphael, 1519.
The Transfiguration, by Raphael, 1520. Commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici
Portrait of Pope Adrian VI in the Rijksmuseum.
Portrait of Clement VII by Giuliano Bugiardini (c. 1532)
Castel Sant'Angelo
Clement VII, age 48
Portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1526
Charles V, enthroned over his defeated enemies (from left): Suleiman the Magnificent, Pope Clement VII, Francis I of France, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony, and the Landgrave of Hesse. Giulio Clovio, mid-16th century
Lead bulla of Clement VII, found in Hertfordshire, England
Meeting of Francis I and Pope Clement VII in Marseilles, 13 October 1533
Agnolo Bronzino - Portrait of Pope Clement VII
The Last Judgement by Michelangelo, commissioned by Pope Clement VII.
Pope Clement VII as Saint Gregory the Great by Giorgio Vasari.
Giulio Cardinal de' Medici, left; with his cousin Pope Leo X, center; and Luigi Cardinal de' Rossi, right; by Raphael, 1519.

As both a cardinal and Pope, Giulio de’ Medici "commissioned or supervised many of the best-known artistic undertakings of the cinquecento."

Free Trade Hall

Constructed in 1853–56 on St Peter’s Fields, the site of the Peterloo Massacre.

The façade of the Free Trade Hall
A commemorative plaque on the side of the Manchester Free Trade Hall

Pevsner described it as "the noblest monument in the Cinquecento style in England", whilst Hartwell considered it "a classic which belongs in the canon of historic English architecture."

Music of Andalusia

The Music of Andalusia encompasses a range of traditional and modern musical genres which originate in the territory of Andalusia in southern Spain.

The hypothesis that the troubador tradition was created, more or less, by William after his experience of Moorish arts while fighting with the Reconquista in Spain was also championed by Ramón Menéndez Pidal in the early twentieth-century, but its origins go back to the Cinquecento and Giammaria Barbieri (died 1575) and Juan Andrés (died 1822).

Penguin Books

British publishing house.

Plaque marking the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Penguin Books by Allen Lane at 8 Vigo Street.
Penguin Crime editions.
Penguin's English edition of Yuri Krimov’s novel The Tanker “Derbent"
Penguin Classics editions
The 80 Little Black Classics published in 2015 marking the 80th anniversary Penguin Books
Four Pelican book covers, showing the gradual shift in the design. From left – 1937 (three bands), 1955 (grid), 1969 (illustrated), and 2007 (a "Penguin Celebrations" throwback edition)
Covers of two Penguin Education titles

Though the 1955 plan was never fully executed—the volumes on Greek painting and sculpture, quattrocento painting and cinquecento sculpture were not written—the Pelican History remains one of the most comprehensive surveys of world art published.

Pietro Bembo

Italian scholar, poet, and literary theorist who also was a member of the Knights Hospitaller, and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

Portrait of Cardinal Pietro Bembo c. 1540
Bembo's Coat of Arms
Bembo in costume as a Knight of Malta. (Lucas Cranach the Younger)
The obverse face of a bronze coin features the left profile of Bembo. (Valerio Belli, ca. 1532)
Bembo's portrait, Historia veneta (1729)

As an intellectual of the Italian Renaissance (15th–16th c.), Pietro Bembo greatly influenced the development of the Tuscan dialect as a literary language for poetry and prose, which, by later codification into a standard language, became the modern Italian language.

Charles Barry

British architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.

Barry c. 1851
All Saints' Church, Whitefield
Holy Trinity Church, Hurstpierpoint
Saloon, Reform Club, London
Trentham Hall, demolished
Highclere Castle, north front
Shrubland Hall
Cliveden House as seen from its lawn
Trafalgar Square c. 1865, painted on Barry's terrace and showing Barry's Fountains
Halifax Town Hall
Aerial view, Palace of Westminster
Elizabeth Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barry's most famous building.
Plan of the main (first) floor, Palace of Westminster
Charles Barry by Henry William Pickersgill

The last major commission of Barry's was Halifax Town Hall (1859–62), in a North Italian Cinquecento style, and a grand tower with spire, the interior includes a central hall similar to that at Bridgewater House, the building was completed after Barry's death by his son Edward Middleton Barry.

English numerals

English number words include numerals and various words derived from them, as well as a large number of words borrowed from other languages.

Arabic numerals set in Source Sans
"Out of the Mud" flyer

cinquecento 16th century

Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

Museum of Catalan visual art located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
Front view of the Palau Nacional, which houses the museum
Aerial view of the Palau Nacional, seen from the back
Apse of Sant Climent de Taüll, a fresco from Church of St. Climent de Taüll
Majestat Batlló
Frontal from La Seu d'Urgell or of The Apostles
Gothic art rooms
Virgin of the Consellers by Lluís Dalmau (1445)
Saint George and the Princess, anonymous
Fountains in front of MNAC
The Victor Balaguer Museum
Educational space at the museum
Cleaning tests at the Conservation-Restoration Center of the museum
Apse of la Seu d'Urgell
Paintings from Santa Maria in Taüll
Apse of Santa Maria d'Àneu
Southern apse from Pedret
Baldachin from Tost
Virgin of Ger
Erill la Vall Descent from the Cross
Altar frontal from Tavèrnoles
Altar frontal from Avià
Altar frontal from Gia (from Benasque Valley, Aragon)
Paintings from Arlanza (from Castile and León)
Mondoñedo Crosier (from Galicia)
Bartolomé Bermejo (Córdoban painter) - Resurrection and Descent of Christ into Limbo
Jaume Cascalls - Head of Christ
Jaume Ferrer II - Saint Jerome, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Sebastian and the Calvary
Guerau Gener and Lluís Borrassà - Gothic altarpiece of Santes Creus
Jaume Huguet - The Consecration of Saint Augustine<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bcn.cat/cultura/18demaig/mnac2.pdf |title=Descobreix una Joia del Museu |work=Ajuntament de Barcelona |date=2003-05-18 |access-date=14 August 2012}}</ref>
Master of Estopanyà - Altarpiece of Saint Vincent
Master of the Conquest of Majorca - Mural paintings of the Conquest of Majorca
Gonçal Peris - Altarpiece of Saint Barbara (from Puertomingalvo town, Aragon)
Joan Reixac - Altarpiece of Saint Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins
Pere Serra - Virgin of the Angels
Ayne Bru - Saint Candidus
Pere Fernández - Saint Blaise
Pere Nunyes - Altarpiece of St Elgius of the Silversmiths
el Greco - Saint Peter and Saint Paul
Annibale Carracci et al.- Mural Paintings from the Herrera Chapel
Josep de Ribera - Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew
Francisco de Zurbarán - Immaculate Conception
Master of Frankfurt - Triptych of the Baptism of Christ
Sebastiano del Piombo - Vittoria Colonna (?)
Tiziano Vecellio and workshop - Girl Before the Mirror
Giandomenico Tiepolo - The Charlatan
Lucas Cranach the Elder - The Ill-Matched Couple
Jean-Honoré Fragonard - Jean-Claude Richard, abbé of Saint-Non
Francisco de Goya - Allegory of Love, Cupid and Psyche
Fra Angelico - Madonna of Humility
Peter Paul Rubens - The Virgin and Child with Saint Elizabeth and Saint John the Baptist
Canaletto - Return of 'Il Bucintoro' on Ascension Day
Damià Campeny - Lucrècia morta
Lluís Rigalt - Ruins
Ramon Martí i Alsina - The Siesta
Joaquim Vayreda - Summer Bloom
Marià Fortuny - The Spanish Wedding
Ramon Casas - Ramon Casas and Pere Romeu on a Tandem<ref>{{cite book |last=Hurtado |first=Joana |title=Un 10 en Art |newspaper=Ara |publisher=Time Out Cultura |location=Barcelona |date=2 January 2011 |pages=70–77 |issn=2014-010X}}</ref>
Santiago Rusiñol - Laboratory of La Galette
Alexandre de Riquer - Composition with winged nymph at sunrise
Isidre Nonell - La Paloma
Josep Llimona - Desolation

It includes representative works of the Gothic and Renaissance periods, together with pieces that illustrate the perfection of the Italian Quattrocento, the sensuality of the great Venetian masters of the Cinquecento, the rising economic prosperity of the Low Countries in the 16th and 17th centuries and the magnificence of the Spanish Golden Age, without forgetting the richness of European Rococo.