Cipher suite

A cipher suite is a set of algorithms that help secure a network connection that uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) or its now-deprecated predecessor Secure Socket Layer (SSL).wikipedia
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Transport Layer Security

SSLTLSSSL/TLS
A cipher suite is a set of algorithms that help secure a network connection that uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) or its now-deprecated predecessor Secure Socket Layer (SSL). The use of ciphers have been a part of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) transit protocol since its creation. Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is based on TLS, but is specifically used for UDP connections instead of TCP connections.

Diffie–Hellman key exchange

Diffie-HellmanDiffie–HellmanDiffie-Hellman key exchange
Although Diffie–Hellman key agreement itself is a non-authenticated key-agreement protocol, it provides the basis for a variety of authenticated protocols, and is used to provide forward secrecy in Transport Layer Security's ephemeral modes (referred to as EDH or DHE depending on the cipher suite).

Link encryption

Bulk encryptionbulk encryption algorithmMultiplex link encryption
The set of algorithms that cipher suites usually contain include: a key exchange algorithm, a bulk encryption algorithm, and a message authentication code (MAC) algorithm.

Message authentication code

MACmessage authentication codesMessage Integrity Code
The set of algorithms that cipher suites usually contain include: a key exchange algorithm, a bulk encryption algorithm, and a message authentication code (MAC) algorithm.

Encryption

encryptedencryptencrypting
This key is used to encrypt and decrypt the messages being sent between two machines.

Cipher

cipherscyphercipher machine
The use of ciphers have been a part of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) transit protocol since its creation.

Key exchange

exchangekey exchange algorithmKEA
The set of algorithms that cipher suites usually contain include: a key exchange algorithm, a bulk encryption algorithm, and a message authentication code (MAC) algorithm.

Public key certificate

digital certificatecertificatedigital certificates
In response, the server sends a serverHello message that includes the chosen cipher suite and the session ID. Next the server sends a digital certificate to verify its identity to the client.

Pre-shared key

PSKpre-shared secret keys
If the client and server are not using pre-shared keys, the client then sends an encrypted message to the server that enables the client and the server to be able to compute which secret key will be used during exchanges.

Round-trip delay time

round-trip timeround trip timeRTT
The handshake in TLS 1.3 was condensed to only one round trip compared to the two round trips required in previous versions of TLS/SSL.

MD5

Camellia (cipher)

CamelliaCamellia cipherCamellia-128, -192 and -256

Authenticated encryption

AEADEncrypt-then-MACauthentication
In addition, all encryption and authentication algorithms are combined in the authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) encryption algorithm.

UDP-based Data Transfer Protocol

UDP Data TransportUDPUDP-based Data Transfer Protocol (UDT)
Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is based on TLS, but is specifically used for UDP connections instead of TCP connections.

Downgrade attack

network attackersprotocol downgrade attackprotocol downgrade attacks
Therefore, a common attack against TLS and cipher suites is known as a Downgrade Attack.