Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular systembloodstreamsystemic circulationvasculatureblood circulationcirculatoryvascular systemhemocoel
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Biological system

biological systemsbody systemsorgan system
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
On the organ and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, examples include the circulatory system, the respiratory system, and the nervous system.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to arouse") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.

Blood

human bloodhematologicalblood-forming
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. These two great vessels empty into the right atrium of the heart.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Lymph node

lymph glandslymph glandfollicle
The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.
They are linked by the lymphatic vessels as a part of the circulatory system.

Extracellular fluid

interstitial fluidinterstitial spaceinterstitial
Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells) and returned to the lymphatic system.
Extracellular fluid is the internal environment of all multicellular animals, and in those animals with a blood circulatory system a proportion of this fluid is blood plasma.

Pulmonary circulation

pulmonary vesselspulmonary circuitalveolar capillaries
It includes the pulmonary circulation, a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

Lymphatic vessel

lymphatic vesselslymphaticslymph vessel
The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.
As part of the lymphatic system, lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system.

Microcirculation

microvasculaturecapillary circulationsmicrovascular
The systemic circulation can also be seen to function in two parts – a macrocirculation and a microcirculation.
The microcirculation is the circulation of the blood in the smallest blood vessels, the microvessels of the microvasculature present within organ tissues.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues.
Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O 2 ) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning "heart" and "vessel") system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
This elasticity helps to maintain the blood pressure throughout the body.
Used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation.

Lymph

lymphaticlymphatic fluidlymph fluid
The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.
Lymph returns proteins and excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream.

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
The first part of the systemic circulation is the aorta, a massive and thick-walled artery.
The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation.

Coronary circulation

coronary arteriescoronarycoronary artery
The coronary circulation system provides a blood supply to the heart muscle itself.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle (myocardium).

Cardiology

cardiologistcardiologistscardiovascular medicine
Cardiologists are medical professionals which specialise in the heart, and cardiothoracic surgeons specialise in operating on the heart and its surrounding areas.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

Atrium (heart)

right atriumatrialeft atrium
These two great vessels empty into the right atrium of the heart.
All animals with a closed circulatory system have at least one atrium (humans have two atria).

Superior vena cava

superioranterior vena cavaSVC
The venous system finally coalesces into two major veins: the superior vena cava (roughly speaking draining the areas above the heart) and the inferior vena cava (roughly speaking from areas below the heart).
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are the most abundant type of phagocyte, normally representing 50% to 60% of the total circulating leukocytes, and consisting of neutrophil-killer and neutrophil-cager subpopulations.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
It includes the pulmonary circulation, a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.
Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange.

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation when leaving the left ventricle, through the aortic semilunar valve.
In a four-chambered heart, such as that in humans, there are two ventricles that operate in a double circulatory system: the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation to the lungs, and the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation through the aorta.

Bronchial circulation

A separate system known as the bronchial circulation supplies blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lung.
The bronchial circulation is the part of the circulatory system that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the cells that constitute the lungs, as well as carrying waste products away from them.

Lymphatic system

lymphoidlymphoid tissuelymphatic
The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a large network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water" ) directionally towards the heart.

Fetal circulation

antenatal circulationBlood flowembryonic artery
Fetal circulation begins within the 8th week of development.
In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus.

Gas exchange

pulmonary gas exchangegaseous exchangealveolar gas exchange
Gas exchange occurs in the lungs, whereby is released from the blood, and oxygen is absorbed.
The gas exchangers are therefore frequently coupled to gas-distributing circulatory systems, which transport the gases evenly to all the body tissues regardless of their distance from the gas exchanger.