Circumcision

circumcisedmale circumcisioncircumciseuncircumcisedcircumcisionsPosthectomymaleritual circumcisioncircumcised peniscircumcisers
Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.wikipedia
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Circumcision controversies

circumcisionAdvocates of circumcisionactivist groups that oppose circumcision
Ethical and legal questions regarding informed consent and human rights have been raised over the circumcision of babies and children for non-medical reasons; for these reasons the procedure is controversial.
Male circumcision has often been, and remains, the subject of controversy on a number of grounds—religious, ethical, sexual, and medical.

Ethics of circumcision

Bioethics of neonatal circumcisionEthical
Ethical and legal questions regarding informed consent and human rights have been raised over the circumcision of babies and children for non-medical reasons; for these reasons the procedure is controversial.
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin (prepuce) from the human penis.

Human penis

penispenisesdick
Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
The most common form of alteration of the penis is circumcision, which is the removal of part or all of the foreskin for various cultural, religious, and (more rarely) medical reasons.

Circumcision and HIV

circumcisedcircumcision reduces HIV infection riskCircumcision/AIDS
The effectiveness of using circumcision to prevent HIV in the developed world is unclear; however, there is some evidence that circumcision reduces HIV infection risk for men who have sex with men.
Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men.

Glans penis

glanscoronal sulcusglans of the penis
In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened, adhesions are removed, and the foreskin is separated from the glans.
Typically, the glans is completely or partially covered by the foreskin in humans, except in those who have been circumcised.

Circumcision clamp

circumcision device
After that, a circumcision device may be placed, and then the foreskin is cut off.
A circumcision clamp is a device which is used specifically for performing circumcision.

Phimosis

pathologic phimosis
Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs).
If this method, combined with stretching exercises, is not effective, then other treatments such as circumcision may be recommended.

Foreskin

prepuceforeskinspenial sheath
Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
In some cases, particularly with chronic conditions, treatment may include circumcision, a procedure where the foreskin is partially or completely removed.

Balanitis

balanoposthitisbalanoposthopizzle rot
Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs).
It is less common among people who are circumcised as in many cases the foreskin contributes to the disease.

Prevention of HIV/AIDS

HIV preventionAIDS preventionHIV/AIDS prevention
Consequently, the WHO recommends consideration of circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in areas with high rates of HIV.
Circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa reduces the risk of HIV infection in heterosexual men between 38 and 66% over two years.

Judaism

JewishJewsJudaic
It is part of religious law in Judaism and is an established practice in Islam, Coptic Christianity, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law and maintaining that the requirements for conversion to Judaism included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs.

Urinary tract infection

cystitisurinary tract infectionsbladder infection
Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Circumcision is also associated with reduced rates of cancer-causing forms of human papillomavirus (HPV), UTIs, and cancer of the penis.
Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate.

Penile cancer

penileCarcinoma of the penispenis
Circumcision is also associated with reduced rates of cancer-causing forms of human papillomavirus (HPV), UTIs, and cancer of the penis.

Royal Dutch Medical Association

KNMGNederlandsch Maatschappij tot bevordering der Geneeskunst (KNMG)Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG)
The Royal Dutch Medical Association, which expresses some of the strongest opposition to routine neonatal circumcision, argues that while there are valid reasons for banning it, doing so could lead parents who insist on the procedure to turn to poorly trained practitioners instead of medical professionals.
In 2010 they called male circumcision a harmful and painful ritual that violates children's rights.

Hypospadias

hypospadiahypospadicPerineal urethra
Circumcision is contraindicated in infants with certain genital structure abnormalities, such as a misplaced urethral opening (as in hypospadias and epispadias), curvature of the head of the penis (chordee), or ambiguous genitalia, because the foreskin may be needed for reconstructive surgery.
Surgery can extend the urinary channel to the end of the penis, straighten bending, and/or change the foreskin (by either circumcision or by altering its appearance to look more typical (“prepucioplasty”), depending on the desire of the patient.

Masturbation

masturbatingmasturbatemasturbates
For adults, topical anesthesia, ring block, dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) and general anesthesia are all options, and the procedure requires four to six weeks of abstinence from masturbation or intercourse to allow the wound to heal.
Male masturbation techniques may differ between males who have been circumcised and those who have not.

Haemophilia

hemophiliahemophiliachaemophiliac
If an individual, child or adult, is known to have or has a family history of serious bleeding disorders (hemophilia), it is recommended that the blood be checked for normal coagulation properties before the procedure is attempted.
Children with mild to moderate haemophilia may not have any signs or symptoms at birth especially if they do not undergo circumcision.

Dorsal slit

superincisionPenile superincisionslit penis
The practitioner then places the circumcision device (this sometimes requires a dorsal slit), which remains until blood flow has stopped.
In Western medicine it was used as an alternative to circumcision to relieve conditions such as failure of the foreskin to retract (phimosis) or failure to cover the glans penis (paraphimosis), although a perception of poor appearance limited its popularity.

Amputation

amputatedamputeeamputate
Finally, the foreskin is amputated.

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
Studies of other sexually transmitted infections also suggest that circumcision is protective, including for men who have sex with men.
Circumcision in adult males may be effective to prevent some infections.

American Academy of Pediatrics

AAPAmerican Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)Bicycle Safety Camp
For infants, non-pharmacological methods such as the use of a comfortable, padded chair and a sucrose or non-sucrose pacifier are more effective at reducing pain than a placebo, but the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that such methods are insufficient alone and should be used to supplement more effective techniques.
In a 2012 position statement, the academy stated that a systematic evaluation of the medical literature shows that the "preventive health benefits of elective circumcision of male newborns outweigh the risks of the procedure" and that the health benefits "are sufficient to justify access to this procedure for families choosing it and to warrant third-party payment for circumcision of male newborns," but "are not great enough to recommend routine circumcision for all male newborns".

Chancroid

[7soft chancre
A 2006 meta-analysis found that circumcision was associated with lower rates of syphilis, chancroid and possibly genital herpes.

Circumcision scar

scarring
For adult men who have been circumcised, there is a risk that the circumcision scar may be tender.
In males who have been circumcised, the circumcision scar refers to the scar after a circumcision has healed.

Chordee

Congenital chordee
Circumcision is contraindicated in infants with certain genital structure abnormalities, such as a misplaced urethral opening (as in hypospadias and epispadias), curvature of the head of the penis (chordee), or ambiguous genitalia, because the foreskin may be needed for reconstructive surgery. Other possible complications include buried penis, chordee, phimosis, skin bridges, urethral fistulas, and meatal stenosis.
A chordee may be caused by an underlying condition, such as a disorder of sex development or an intersex condition, or from a complication of circumcision, though some medical professionals do not consider it to be true chordee because the corporal bodies are normally formed.

Skin bridge

Other possible complications include buried penis, chordee, phimosis, skin bridges, urethral fistulas, and meatal stenosis.
It most commonly occurs as a consequence of an improperly healed circumcision, being formed when the inner lining of the remaining foreskin attaches to another part of the penis (normally the glans) as the cut heals.