Cisalpine Gaul

Gallia CisalpinaGallia TranspadanaCisalpineCisalpinaTranspadanaCisalpine GallicCispadane GaulGallia CispadanaNorthern ItalyAriminum
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata ) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.wikipedia
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Celts

CelticCeltCeltic people
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata ) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
450 BC to the Roman conquest), this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles (Insular Celts), France and the Low Countries (Gauls), Bohemia, Poland and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Celtici, Lusitanians and Gallaeci) and northern Italy (Golasecca culture and Cisalpine Gauls) and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians) in modern-day Turkey.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata ) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. The Veneti were an Indo-European people who inhabited north-eastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of the Veneto, Friuli, and Trentino.
The northern area of Cisalpine Gaul was occupied by Rome in the 220s BC and became considered geographically and de facto part of Italy, but remained politically and de jure separated.

Gauls

GallicGaulishGaul
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata ) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
By the 4th century BC, they spread over much of what is now France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Southern Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia by virtue of controlling the trade routes along the river systems of the Rhône, Seine, Rhine, and Danube, and they quickly expanded into Northern Italy, the Balkans, Transylvania and Galatia.

Piacenza

PlacentiaRoncagliaPiacentine
The Roman province of the 1st century BC was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia by the river Po, and then by the Apennines and the river Rubicon, and in the east by the Adriatic Sea.
Before its settlement by the Romans, the area was populated by other peoples; specifically, most recently to the Roman settlement, the region on the right bank of the Po between the Trebbia and the Taro had been occupied by the Ananes or Anamari, a tribe of Cisalpine Gauls.

Gaul

GallicGalliaGallia Comata
Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul, precisely that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps" (from the perspective of the Romans), as opposed to Transalpine Gaul ("on the far side of the Alps").
During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC.

Gallia Narbonensis

Transalpine GaulGallia TransalpinaNarbonensis
Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul, precisely that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps" (from the perspective of the Romans), as opposed to Transalpine Gaul ("on the far side of the Alps").
It was also known as Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), from its having been the first Roman province north of the Alps, and as Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul"), distinguishing it from Cisalpine Gaul in northern Italy.

Po (river)

PoPo RiverRiver Po
The Roman province of the 1st century BC was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia by the river Po, and then by the Apennines and the river Rubicon, and in the east by the Adriatic Sea. Gallia Cisalpina was further subdivided into Gallia Cispadana and Gallia Transpadana, i.e. its portions south and north of the Po River, respectively.
The Po valley was the territory of Roman Cisalpine Gaul, divided into Cispadane Gaul (south of the Po) and Transpadane Gaul (north of the Po).

Rubicon

Rubicon RiverRubiconeFiumicino river
The Roman province of the 1st century BC was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia by the river Po, and then by the Apennines and the river Rubicon, and in the east by the Adriatic Sea.
During the Roman Republic, the river Rubicon marked the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the northeast and Italy proper, controlled directly by Rome and its socii (allies), to the south.

Milan

Milan, ItalyMilanoMilano, Italy
34) has the Bituriges, Arverni, Senones, Aedui, Ambarri, Carnutes, and Aulerci led by Bellovesus, arrive in northern Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus (7th-6th century BC), occupying the area between Milan and Cremona.
They eventually conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" (Gallia Cisalpina) – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon (Latinized as Mediolānum) meant "(settlement) in the midst of the plain".

Cremona

CremoneseCremona, Italy Cremonese
34) has the Bituriges, Arverni, Senones, Aedui, Ambarri, Carnutes, and Aulerci led by Bellovesus, arrive in northern Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus (7th-6th century BC), occupying the area between Milan and Cremona.
Cremona and nearby Placentia (modern Piacenza, on the south bank of the Po), were founded in the same year, as bases for penetration into what became the Roman Province of Gallia Cisalpina (Cisalpine Gaul).

Roman citizenship

Roman citizenRoman citizenscitizens
In 49 BC all inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received Roman citizenship, and eventually the province was divided among four of the eleven regions of Italy: Regio VIII Gallia Cispadana, Regio IX Liguria, Regio X Venetia et Histria and Regio XI Gallia Transpadana.
This was extended to all the Italian socii states when the war ended (except for Gallia Cisalpina), effectively eliminating socii and Latini as legal and citizenship definitions.

Veneto

VenetiaVenetianVeneto region
The Veneti were an Indo-European people who inhabited north-eastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of the Veneto, Friuli, and Trentino.
After the Battle of Philippi (42 BC) ended the Roman Civil War, the lands of the Veneti, together with the rest of Cisalpine Gaul, ceased to be a province.

Adriatic Veneti

VenetiVeneticVenetians
The Veneti were an Indo-European people who inhabited north-eastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of the Veneto, Friuli, and Trentino.
Venetic territory was incorporated into Cisalpine Gaul, and under Augustus was organized as the tenth region (Regio X) of Roman Italy.

Boii

BoianCeltsCeltic
In the Second Punic War, the Boii and Insubres allied themselves with the Carthaginians, laying siege to Mutina (Modena).
The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; ) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), parts of Poland, and Gallia Narbonensis.

Battle of Telamon

Telamonbattledecisive battle
At the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC, a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed.
Rome had been at peace with the tribes of Cisalpine Gaul, the area along the Po valley in northern Italy, since inconclusive skirmishing ceased in 238 BC.

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius Cæsar
The Greek historian Strabo (64 BC–AD 24), on the other hand, conjectured that the Adriatic Veneti were descendant from Celts, who in turn were related to later Celtic tribe of the same name who lived on the Armorican coast and fought against Julius Caesar.
With the help of political allies, Caesar later overturned this, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (southeastern Europe), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions.

Cenomani (Cisalpine Gaul)

CenomaniCeltic Cenomani of Cisalpine GaulCenomani Celts
The Romans were defeated in the Battle of the Ticinus, leading to all the Gauls except for the Cenomani to join the insurgency.
The Cenomani (Greek: Κενομάνοι, Strabo, Ptol.; Γονομάνοι, Polyb.), was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, who occupied the tract north of the Padus (modern Po River), between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east.

Modena

MutinaModena, ItalyModenese
In the Second Punic War, the Boii and Insubres allied themselves with the Carthaginians, laying siege to Mutina (Modena).
Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, and quickly became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona.

Golasecca culture

Golaseccans
The bearers of the Canegrate culture maintained its homogeneity for only a century, after which it melded with the Ligurian aboriginal populations and with this union gave rise to a new phase called the Golasecca culture, which is nowadays identified with the Celtic Lepontii.

Second Punic War

2nd Punic WarHannibalic WarSecond
In the Second Punic War, the Boii and Insubres allied themselves with the Carthaginians, laying siege to Mutina (Modena).
In Cisalpine Gaul, the Gallic Boii and Insubres rebels attacked the Roman colonies of Placentia and Cremona, causing the Romans to flee to Mutina (modern Modena), which the Gauls then besieged.

Insubres

InsubrianInsuberGalli Insubri
In the Second Punic War, the Boii and Insubres allied themselves with the Carthaginians, laying siege to Mutina (Modena).
Polybius called the Insubres the most important Celtic tribe of the Italian peninsula, while according to the Livy they were the first to inhabit Cisalpine Gaul, from the 7th century BC.

Ligures

LigurianLiguriansLiguri
The bearers of the Canegrate culture maintained its homogeneity for only a century, after which it melded with the Ligurian aboriginal populations and with this union gave rise to a new phase called the Golasecca culture, which is nowadays identified with the Celtic Lepontii.

Roman Italy

ItaliaItalyItalian
In 49 BC all inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received Roman citizenship, and eventually the province was divided among four of the eleven regions of Italy: Regio VIII Gallia Cispadana, Regio IX Liguria, Regio X Venetia et Histria and Regio XI Gallia Transpadana. Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy as indicated in Caesar's unpublished acts (Acta Caesaris).
However, Roman citizenship was recognized to the rest of the Italics by the end of the conflict and then extended to Cisalpine Gaul when Julius Caesar became Roman Dictator.

Hannibal

Hannibal BarcaHannibal of Carthage Hannibal
These were the Roman forces encountered by Hannibal after his crossing of the Alps.
By 220 BC, the Romans had annexed the area as Cisalpine Gaul.

Catullus

Gaius Valerius CatullusCatallusCatullan
Virgil, Catullus and Livy, three famous sons of the province, were born in Gallia Cisalpina.
Gaius Valerius Catullus was born to a leading equestrian family of Verona, in Cisalpine Gaul.