Citalopram

CelexaCipramilTalohexal
Citalopram, sold under the brand name Celexa among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.wikipedia
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Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Citalopram, sold under the brand name Celexa among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. In the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ranking of 10 antidepressants for efficacy and cost-effectiveness citalopram is fifth in effectiveness (after mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) and fourth in cost-effectiveness.
However, there isn't enough evidence to support citalopram for treating social phobia and fluoxetine was no better than placebo in clinical trials.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRIs
Citalopram, sold under the brand name Celexa among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Paroxetine was the first drug to be approved for social anxiety disorder and it is considered effective for this disorder, sertraline and fluvoxamine were later approved for it too, escitalopram and citalopram are used off label with acceptable efficacy, while fluoxetine is not considered to be effective for this disorder.

Escitalopram

LexaproCipralexEcitalopram
In the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ranking of 10 antidepressants for efficacy and cost-effectiveness citalopram is fifth in effectiveness (after mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) and fourth in cost-effectiveness. Lundbeck now markets the (S)- enantiomer, the generic name of which is escitalopram.
Escitalopram is the (S)-stereoisomer of the earlier medication citalopram, hence the name escitalopram.

Sertraline

ZoloftLustralSertraline Hydrochloride
In the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ranking of 10 antidepressants for efficacy and cost-effectiveness citalopram is fifth in effectiveness (after mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) and fourth in cost-effectiveness.
Comparative clinical trials demonstrated that sertraline is similar in efficacy against depression to moclobemide, nefazodone, escitalopram, bupropion, citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and mirtazapine.

Mirtazapine

RemeronmirtazepineAvanza
In the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ranking of 10 antidepressants for efficacy and cost-effectiveness citalopram is fifth in effectiveness (after mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) and fourth in cost-effectiveness.
Mirtazapine is considered to be relatively safe in the event of an overdose, although it is considered slightly more toxic in overdose than most of the SSRIs (except citalopram).

Venlafaxine

EffexorEffexor XRVenlafaxin
In the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ranking of 10 antidepressants for efficacy and cost-effectiveness citalopram is fifth in effectiveness (after mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) and fourth in cost-effectiveness.
In a double-blind study, patients who did not respond to an SSRI were switched to venlafaxine or citalopram.

Long QT syndrome

QT prolongationProlonged QT intervalLong QT syndrome type 3
Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide in those under the age of 25, serotonin syndrome, glaucoma, and QT prolongation.
Other drugs which prolong the QT interval include some antipsychotics such as haloperidol and ziprasidone, and the antidepressant citalopram.

Dysthymia

chronic depressiondysthymic disorderdysthymic
Citalopram may be used off-label to treat anxiety, and dysthymia, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder.
The most commonly prescribed antidepressants/SSRIs for dysthymia are escitalopram, citalopram, sertraline, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and fluvoxamine.

Bruxism

teeth grindinggrinding of teethsleep bruxism
Less common side effects include bruxism, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmia, blood pressure changes, dilated pupils, anxiety, mood swings, headache, and dizziness.
Specific examples include levodopa (when used in the long term, as in Parkinson's disease), fluoxetine, metoclopramide, lithium, cocaine, venlafaxine, citalopram, fluvoxamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylphenidate (used in attention deficit hyperactive disorder), and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and similar gamma-aminobutyric acid-inducing analogues such as phenibut.

Diabetic neuropathy

neuropathydiabetic neuropathiesdiabetic peripheral neuropathy
Citalopram has been found to reduce the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.
SSRIs include fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and citalopram have been found to be no more efficacious than placebo in several controlled trials and therefore are not recommended to treat painful diabetic neuropathy.

Lundbeck

H. LundbeckH. Lundbeck A/SH Lundbeck
Lundbeck now markets the (S)- enantiomer, the generic name of which is escitalopram.
In 1989, Lundbeck launched the antidepressant Celexa (citalopram), which became the cornerstone for the company’s international expansion and in 2009 Lundbeck, bought Ovation and established a commercial platform in the USA.

Forest Laboratories

ForestForest Laboratories EuropeForest Laboratories, Inc.
On July 17, 1998, the company received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for Celexa (Citalopram), an antidepressant.

Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome

withdrawal syndromediscontinuation syndromeSSRI discontinuation syndrome
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome may occur when stopped.
When discontinuing an antidepressant with a short half-life, switching to a drug with a longer half-life (e.g. fluoxetine or citalopram) and then tapering, and eventually discontinuing, from that drug can decrease the severity of symptoms.

CYP3A4

cytochrome P450 3A43A4cytochrome P450-3A4
Citalopram is metabolized in the liver mostly by CYP2C19, but also by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

Chirality (chemistry)

chiralchiralityoptical isomer
As a result of this chirality, the molecule exists in (two) enantiomeric forms (mirror images).

CYP2C19

2C19CYP2C19*2cytochrome P450 2C19
Citalopram is metabolized in the liver mostly by CYP2C19, but also by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

Enantiomer

enantiomersenantioselectiveenantiopure
As a result of this chirality, the molecule exists in (two) enantiomeric forms (mirror images).
Another example is the antidepressant drugs escitalopram and citalopram.

Fluoxetine

ProzacProzakSarafem
Some doctors choose to switch a patient to Prozac (fluoxetine) when discontinuing citalopram as fluoxetine has a much longer half-life (i.e. stays in the body longer compared to citalopram).
In addition, fluoxetine has been found to act as an agonist of the σ 1 -receptor, with a potency greater than that of citalopram but less than that of fluvoxamine.

CYP2D6

2D6cytochrome P450 2D6cytochrome p-450 cyp2d6
Citalopram is metabolized in the liver mostly by CYP2C19, but also by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia.

Panic disorder

panicpanic disorderspanic disorde
It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia.

Social anxiety disorder

social phobiaAnthropophobiasociophobia
It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide in those under the age of 25, serotonin syndrome, glaucoma, and QT prolongation.

Serotonin syndrome

hyperserotonemiaserotonin toxicitycentral toxic serotonin reaction
Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide in those under the age of 25, serotonin syndrome, glaucoma, and QT prolongation.

Glaucoma

open-angle glaucomaangle closure glaucomaacute angle-closure glaucoma
Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide in those under the age of 25, serotonin syndrome, glaucoma, and QT prolongation.