CiteSeerX

CiteSeerarticleCiteSeer X ResearchIndex
CiteSeer x (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science.wikipedia
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Google Scholar

Google Scholar Citationsaimed at the academic communityGoogle Scholar and academic libraries
CiteSeer is considered as a predecessor of academic search tools such as Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search.
Around this period, sites with similar features such as CiteSeer, Scirus, and Microsoft Windows Live Academic search were developed.

Steve Lawrence (computer scientist)

Steve Lawrence
CiteSeer was created by researchers Lee Giles, Kurt Bollacker and Steve Lawrence in 1997 while they were at the NEC Research Institute (now NEC Labs), Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
He was among the group at NEC Research which was responsible for the creation of the Search Engine/Digital Library CiteSeer.

Citation index

citation indicescitation indexingcited
CiteSeer's goal was to actively crawl and harvest academic and scientific documents on the web and use autonomous citation indexing to permit querying by citation or by document, ranking them by citation impact.
The first automated citation indexing was done by CiteSeer in 1997.

Microsoft Academic Search

Libra (Academic Search)Microsoft AcademicMicrosoft Academic Ranking
CiteSeer is considered as a predecessor of academic search tools such as Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search.

DBLP

Digital Bibliography & Library ProjectarticleDigital Bibliography and Library Project
CiteSeer freely provided Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM Portal.

Kurt Bollacker

CiteSeer was created by researchers Lee Giles, Kurt Bollacker and Steve Lawrence in 1997 while they were at the NEC Research Institute (now NEC Labs), Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
He is co-creator of the CiteSeer research tool which was produced while he was a visiting researcher at the NEC Research Institute.

Open access

open-accessopen access journalopen-access journal
As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature.
Although the practice was first formally proposed in 1994, self-archiving was already being practiced by some computer scientists in local FTP archives in the 1980s (later harvested by CiteSeer).

Lee Giles

C. Lee GilesDr. Lee Giles
CiteSeer was created by researchers Lee Giles, Kurt Bollacker and Steve Lawrence in 1997 while they were at the NEC Research Institute (now NEC Labs), Princeton, New Jersey, USA. It was developed by researchers Dr. Isaac Councill and Dr. C. Lee Giles at the College of Information Sciences and Technology, Pennsylvania State University.
With Steve Lawrence and Kurt Bollacker, Giles was responsible for the creation in 1997 of automatic citation indexing and CiteSeer, a public academic search engine and digital library for Computer and Information Science.

Computer science

computer scientistcomputer sciencescomputer scientists
CiteSeer x (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science. CiteSeer x is a public search engine and digital library and repository for scientific and academic papers primarily with a focus on computer and information science.

Disciplinary repository

repositorydisciplinarydisciplinary repositories
CiteSeer x is a public search engine and digital library and repository for scientific and academic papers primarily with a focus on computer and information science.
Others such as CiteSeerX crawl the web for scholar and researcher websites and download publicly available academic papers from those sites.

Pennsylvania State University

Penn State UniversityPenn StateThe Pennsylvania State University
After NEC, in 2004 it was hosted as CiteSeer.IST on the World Wide Web at the College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, and had over 700,000 documents. It was developed by researchers Dr. Isaac Councill and Dr. C. Lee Giles at the College of Information Sciences and Technology, Pennsylvania State University.
The university's College of Information Sciences and Technology is the home of CiteSeerX, an open-access repository and search engine for scholarly publications.

Citation impact

citation metricscitation countimpact
CiteSeer's goal was to actively crawl and harvest academic and scientific documents on the web and use autonomous citation indexing to permit querying by citation or by document, ranking them by citation impact.
The first example of automated citation indexing was CiteSeer, later to be followed by Google Scholar.

Penn State College of Information Sciences and Technology

College of Information Sciences and Technologythe College of Information Sciences and Technology
It was developed by researchers Dr. Isaac Councill and Dr. C. Lee Giles at the College of Information Sciences and Technology, Pennsylvania State University.
The college is also the home of the well known academic search engine, CiteSeerX.

SmealSearch

BizSeer
The CiteSeer model had been extended to cover academic documents in business with SmealSearch and in e-business with eBizSearch.
It was based on the CiteSeer digital library and search engine technology.

ChemXSeer

Chem X Seer
Other Seer-like search and repository systems have been built for chemistry, Chem X Seer and for archaeology, ArchSeer.
* CiteSeer x

Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies

The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographiesarticle

Search engine (computing)

search enginesearch enginessearch engines
CiteSeer x (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science.

Digital library

digital librariesdigital repositoryvirtual library
CiteSeer x (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science. CiteSeer x is a public search engine and digital library and repository for scientific and academic papers primarily with a focus on computer and information science.

Information science

Information SciencesInformation StudiesInformation Science and Engineering
CiteSeer x (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science. CiteSeer x is a public search engine and digital library and repository for scientific and academic papers primarily with a focus on computer and information science.

Academic publishing

research papersacademic paperacademic publisher
As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature.

Open Archives Initiative

OAIarchiveOAI service providers
CiteSeer freely provided Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM Portal.

Metadata

meta datameta-datacommunications metadata
CiteSeer freely provided Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM Portal.

Open data

Open government dataopendata
To promote open data, CiteSeer x shares its data for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons license.