Citizenship

citizencitizensburghercitizenryhonorary citizenburgherscivic dutyhonorary citizenshipBurgercivic
Citizen is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.wikipedia
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Nationality

nationalitiesnational originnational
Nationality is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group). In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship).
Nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship, which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country.

British nationality law

BritishBritish citizenBritish citizenship
In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship).
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom that concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.

Jus sanguinis

ius sanguinisbirthjus sanguines
Jus sanguinis (,, ; "right of blood") is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is determined or acquired by the nationality or ethnicity of one or both parents.

Jus soli

birthright citizenshipius solinative-born
]]Jus soli (,, ; meaning "right of soil" ), commonly referred to as birthright citizenship in the United States, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.

Naturalization

naturalizednaturalized citizennaturalised
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.

Multiple citizenship

dual citizenshipdual citizendual nationality
A person may have multiple citizenships.
Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.

Ethnic group

ethnicityethnicethnic groups
Nationality is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group).
Depending on the context that is used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity or synonymously with citizenship (in a sovereign state).

Sham marriage

marriage frauda shamsham
Common reasons for sham marriages are to gain immigration, residency, work, or citizenship rights for one of the spouses.

Economic citizenship

alternative residence and citizenshipcitizenship by investmentcitizenship-by-investment program
Citizenship-by-investment enables individuals to acquire an additional citizenship by making an exceptional economic contribution to another country.

Statelessness

statelessstateless personstateless persons
A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose territorial status is uncertain is a border-lander.
An amendment to the Canadian Citizenship Act (S.C. 2008, c. 14, previously Bill C-37) came into effect on 17 April 2009 and changed the rules for the acquisition of foreign-born Canadian citizenship.

Republicanism

republicanrepublicansrepublican government
The rise of citizenship was linked to the rise of republicanism, according to one account, since independent citizens meant that kings had less power.
It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic.

Naturalization Act of 1790

Naturalization Actfederal law from 1790first U.S. naturalization act
The Naturalization Act of 1790, the first law in U.S. history to establish rules for citizenship and naturalization, barred citizenship to all people who were not of European descent, stating that "any alien being a free white person, who shall have resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States for the term of two years, may be admitted to become a citizen thereof."
The original United States Naturalization Law of March 26, 1790 provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
In 2008, France granted citizenship to 137,000 persons, mostly from Morocco, Algeria and Turkey.

Rights

rightRights Ethicspolitical rights
Citizenship became an idealized, almost abstract, concept, and did not signify a submissive relation with a lord or count, but rather indicated the bond between a person and the state in the rather abstract sense of having rights and duties.

Indian Citizenship Act

Indian Citizenship Act of 1924acquired 1924all American Indians were recognized as citizens
Native Americans were not granted full US citizenship until the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act in 1924.
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called "Indians" in this Act.

Burgher (title)

burgherburghersburgher class
Titles such as burgher, grand burgher (German Großbürger) and bourgeoisie denoted political affiliation and identity in relation to a particular locality, as well as membership in a mercantile or trading class; thus, individuals of respectable means and socioeconomic status were interchangeable with citizens.
A burgher was a rank or title of a privileged citizen of medieval towns in early modern Europe.

Nation

nationsnationalnationhood
Nationality is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group). Citizen is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

Law

legallawslegal theory
Citizen is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. Many thinkers point to the concept of citizenship beginning in the early city-states of ancient Greece, although others see it as primarily a modern phenomenon dating back only a few hundred years and, for humanity, that the concept of citizenship arose with the first laws.

Metic

meticsmétèquesmétèque
Inequality of status was widespread; citizens (πολίτης politēs < πόλις 'city') had a higher status than non-citizens, such as women, slaves, and resident foreigners (metics).
Metics typically shared the burdens of citizenship without any of its privileges.

Permanent residency

permanent residentpermanent residentspermanent residence
Permanent residency is a person's resident status in a country of which they are not citizens but where they have the right to reside on a permanent basis.

Suffrage

right to votevoting rightsfranchise
It typically does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region; distinctions are frequently made in regard to citizenship, age, and occasionally mental capacity or criminal convictions.

City-state

city statecity-statescity states
Many thinkers point to the concept of citizenship beginning in the early city-states of ancient Greece, although others see it as primarily a modern phenomenon dating back only a few hundred years and, for humanity, that the concept of citizenship arose with the first laws.
The Vatican City State has its own citizenship, diplomatic corps, flag, and postage stamps.

Racial policy of Nazi Germany

Nazi racial policiesNazi racial policyracial policies
The Reich Citizenship Law of 1935 established racial criteria for citizenship in the German Reich, and because of this law Jews and others who could not prove "German" racial heritage were stripped of their citizenship.
After this, the "Reich Citizenship Law" was passed, and was reinforced in November by a decree; it included only people of "German or related blood", which meant that all Jews were stripped of their citizenship and their official title became "subjects of the state".

Citizenship of the United States

United States citizenAmericanU.S. citizen
In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship).
Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the rights to freedom of expression, vote, due process, live and work in the United States, and to receive federal assistance.

Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
Some cornerstones of these issues are freedom of assembly and speech, inclusiveness and equality, membership, consent, voting, right to life and minority rights.