Citizenship of the United States

United States citizenAmericanU.S. citizenAmerican citizenU.S. citizenshipAmerican citizenshipUS citizenUnited States citizenshipU.S. citizensUS citizenship
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.wikipedia
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Citizenship

citizencitizensburgher
Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the rights to freedom of expression, vote, due process, live and work in the United States, and to receive federal assistance.
In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship).

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the rights to freedom of expression, vote, due process, live and work in the United States, and to receive federal assistance.
A citizen of the United States is an "American".

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
National citizenship signifies membership in the country as a whole; state citizenship, in contrast, signifies a relation between a person and a particular state and has application generally limited to domestic matters. In addition to the 50 U.S. states, this includes the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.

Americans

AmericanAmericaUnited States
U.S. citizenship can be renounced by Americans who also hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U.S. embassy.
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America.

Green card

U.S. green cardgreen cardspermanent resident
There are two primary sources of citizenship: birthright citizenship, in which a person is presumed to be a citizen if he or she was born within the territorial limits of the United States, or—providing certain other requirements are met—born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent, and naturalization, a process in which an eligible legal immigrant applies for citizenship and is accepted.
There are an estimated 13.2 million green card holders of whom 8.9 million are eligible for citizenship of the United States.

Citizenship Clause

1st Section of the 14th Amendmentbirthright citizenshipgrants citizenship
These two pathways to citizenship are specified in the Citizenship Clause of the Constitution's 1868 Fourteenth Amendment which reads:
The reference to naturalization in the Citizenship Clause is to the process by which immigrants are granted United States citizenship.

Right of foreigners to vote in the United States

not presently allowed by any U.S. state to vote in federal or state electionsnon-citizen residentsnon-citizen voting
Both of these groups are not allowed to vote in federal or state elections, although there is no constitutional prohibition against their doing so.
A foreigner, in this context, is an alien or a person who is not a citizen of the United States.

Selective Service System

Selective Service4-F4F
All male U.S. citizens and male immigrant non-citizens, who are between the ages of 18 and 25 are required by law to have registered within 30 days of their 18th birthdays, and must notify Selective Service within ten days of any changes to any of the information they provided on their registration cards, such as a change of address.

Article One of the United States Constitution

Article IArticle OneU.S. Const. art. I
In Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a "uniform rule of naturalization" is granted explicitly to Congress.
The Constitution provides three requirements for Representatives: A Representative must be at least 25 years old, must be an inhabitant of the state in which he or she is elected, and must have been a citizen of the United States for the previous seven years.

Federal government of the United States

United States governmentU.S. governmentfederal government
Rules made by Congress and the federal government regarding citizenship are highly technical and often confusing, and the agency is forced to cope with enforcement within a complex regulatory milieu.
In order to be elected as a representative, an individual must be at least 25 years of age, must have been a U.S. citizen for at least seven years, and must live in the state that he or she represents.

Afroyim v. Rusk

Beys Afroyim
The Supreme Court case of Afroyim v. Rusk declared that a U.S. citizen did not lose his citizenship by voting in an election in a foreign country, or by acquiring foreign citizenship, if they did not intend to lose U.S. citizenship.
Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967), is a major United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that citizens of the United States may not be deprived of their citizenship involuntarily.

Puerto Rico

Puerto RicanCommonwealth of Puerto RicoPuerto Rica
However, not all U.S. citizens, such as those living in Puerto Rico, have the right to vote in federal elections. In addition to the 50 U.S. states, this includes the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act.

United States v. Wong Kim Ark

Wong Kim ArkIn re Wong Kim ArkU.S. Supreme Court citizenship case
A few years earlier, as a result of the 1898 United States v. Wong Kim Ark Supreme Court decision, ethnic Chinese born in the United States became citizens.
United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that "a child born in the United States, of parents of Chinese descent, who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of the Emperor of China, but have a permanent domicil and residence in the United States, and are there carrying on business, and are not employed in any diplomatic or official capacity under the Emperor of China", automatically became a U.S. citizen at birth.

Guam

Territory of GuamGUGuamanian
In addition to the 50 U.S. states, this includes the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, and they are American citizens by birth.

United States Department of State

State DepartmentU.S. State DepartmentDepartment of State
. The United States Department of State confirms on their website that a US citizen can hold dual nationality: "A U.S. citizen may naturalize in a foreign state without any risk to his or her U.S. citizenship"

Alien (law)

alienaliensforeigners
The Equal Nationality Act of 1934 was an American law which allowed foreign-born children of American mothers and alien fathers who had entered America before age 18 and lived in America for five years to apply for American citizenship for the first time.
Under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of the United States, "[t]he term 'alien' means any person not a citizen or national of the United States."

Voting rights in the United States

voting rightsright to voteSuffrage
Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the rights to freedom of expression, vote, due process, live and work in the United States, and to receive federal assistance.
In addition, the Commission concluded that the United States violates the Petitioners' rights under Articles II and XX of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man by denying District of Columbia citizens an effective opportunity to participate in their federal legislature.

Naturalization

naturalizednaturalized citizennaturalised
In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment specifically defined persons who were either born or naturalized in the United States and subject to its jurisdiction as citizens.
"The sole authority to naturalize persons as citizens of the United States is conferred upon the Attorney General."

Honorary citizenship of the United States

Honorary Citizen of the United Stateshonorary citizenshiphonorary United States citizenship
The title of "Honorary Citizen of the United States" has been granted eight times by an act of Congress or by a proclamation issued by the president pursuant to authorization granted by Congress.
A person of exceptional merit, a non-United States citizen, may be declared an honorary citizen of the United States by an Act of Congress or by a proclamation issued by the President of the United States, pursuant to authorization granted by Congress.

Child Citizenship Act of 2000

became U.S. citizens by adoptioncitizens by adoptionoutside the normal naturalisation process
Under the Child Citizenship Act of 2000, Section 322 was amended to extend also to children who generally reside outside the United States with a U.S. citizen parent, whether biological or adopted.
The Child Citizenship Act of 2000 is a United States federal law that allows certain foreign-born, biological and adopted children of United States citizens to acquire United States citizenship automatically.

Expatriation tax

Heart Act
For example, under the Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief Tax (HEART) Act of 2008, U.S. citizens in general are subject to an expatriation tax if they give up U.S. citizenship, but there are exceptions (specifically ) for those who are either under age 18½ upon giving up U.S. citizenship and have lived in the U.S. for less than ten years in their lives, or who are dual citizens by birth residing in their other country of citizenship at the time of giving up U.S. citizenship and have lived in the U.S. for less than ten out of the past fifteen years.
To deter tax avoidance by abandonment of citizenship, the United States imposes an expatriation tax on high net worth and high income individuals who give up U.S. citizenship.

United States Citizenship and Immigration Services

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration ServicesUSCISCitizenship and Immigration Services
The agency in charge of admitting new citizens is the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, commonly abbreviated as USCIS.
USCIS focuses on two key points on the immigrant's journey towards civic integration: when they first become permanent residents and when they are ready to begin the formal naturalization process.

American Samoa

America SamoaSamoaAS
For example, as specified in, a person whose only connection to the U.S. is through birth in an outlying possession (which, as of March 2015, was defined under as American Samoa and Swains Island), or through descent from a person so born, acquires only U.S. nationality but not U.S. citizenship.
Most of them are "nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth"; as well as birthright citizenship not applying on the islands, American Samoans cannot vote in the American Presidential elections.

Northern Mariana Islands

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern MarianasNorthern Marianas Islands
In addition to the 50 U.S. states, this includes the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Article III of the Covenant conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents, which generally included all citizens of the CNMI, and established U.S. birthright citizenship for persons born in the CNMI.

Nationality Act of 1940

Nationality Act
However, it was not applied retroactively, and was modified by later laws, such as the Nationality Act of 1940.