City proper

The city proper starts and ends at the city limits, as seen with this sign for Schulenburg, Texas.
An unincorporated town such as Nutbush could not be a city proper, but it can be part of one
In demography, city proper is one of the three basic concepts used to define urban areas and populations.
In encyclopedias, the term "city proper" is often used as an example to illustrate a meaning of the word "proper" as "tightly defined"
"City proper" can take on different meanings in different parts of the world. (6th of October, Egypt)
Nagqu (yellow), Tibet, a city established in 2018, became the largest city in China by area, overtaking Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia.
Divided into several Local Government Areas, Lagos, the most populous city in Africa, and one of the most populous and fastest growing cities in the world, does not count as a city proper

Geographical area contained within city limits.

- City proper
The city proper starts and ends at the city limits, as seen with this sign for Schulenburg, Texas.

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Large signs like this one in Schulenburg, Texas are often posted at the city limits of American cities.

City limits

City limits or city boundaries refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.

City limits or city boundaries refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.

Large signs like this one in Schulenburg, Texas are often posted at the city limits of American cities.
Rail tracks and roads often separate or bound cities. In this case, a BNSF right of way and Esperanza Road separate the strip mall on the left, which is in Yorba Linda, from the car dealership on the right, which is in Anaheim.

The area within the city limit can be called the city proper.

Palitana represents the city's symbolic function in the extreme, devoted as it is to Jain temples.

City

Large human settlement.

Large human settlement.

Palitana represents the city's symbolic function in the extreme, devoted as it is to Jain temples.
Hillside housing and graveyard in Kabul
Downtown Pittsburgh sits at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, which become the Ohio.
Kluuvi, a city centre of Helsinki, Finland
The L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., inspired by the design of Versailles, combines a utilitarian grid pattern with diagonal avenues and a symbolic focus on monumental architecture.
This aerial view of the Gush Dan metropolitan area in Israel shows the geometrically planned city of Tel Aviv proper (upper left) as well as Givatayim to the east and some of Bat Yam to the south. Tel Aviv's population is 433,000; the total population of its metropolitan area is 3,785,000.
An arch from the ancient Sumerian city Ur, which flourished in the third millennium BC, can be seen at present-day Tell el-Mukayyar in Iraq
Mohenjo-daro, a city of the Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan, which was rebuilt six or more times, using bricks of standard size, and adhering to the same grid layout—also in the third millennium BC.
This aerial view of what was once downtown Teotihuacan shows the Pyramid of the Sun, Pyramid of the Moon, and the processional avenue serving as the spine of the city's street system.
Vyborg in Leningrad Oblast, Russia has existed since the 13th century
Imperial Free Cities in the Holy Roman Empire 1648
This map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, created around 1550, shows the city completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal, with its square shape inspired by Jerusalem.
The industrial-based city of Tampere on the shores of the Tammerkoski rapids in 1837.
Diorama of old Gyumri, Armenia with the Holy Saviour's Church (1859–1873)
Small city Gyöngyös in Hungary in 1938.
Graph showing urbanization from 1950 projected to 2050.
Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006.
The city council of Tehran meets in September 2015.
The city hall in George Town, Malaysia, today serves as the seat of the City Council of Penang Island.
The Dublin Fire Brigade in Dublin, Ireland, quenching a severe fire at a hardware store in 1970
The Ripon Building, the headquarters of Greater Chennai Corporation in Chennai. It is one of the oldest city governing corporations in Asia.
La Plata, Argentina, based on a perfect square with 5196-meter sides, was designed in the 1880s as the new capital of Buenos Aires Province.
Clusters of skyscrapers in Xinyi Special District – the centre of commerce and finance of Taipei City, capital of Taiwan.
Paris is one of the best-known cities in the world.
Nepalese dancers at Edmonton Heritage Festival, an example of the cultural diversity of a city.
Atomic bombing on August 6, 1945, devastated the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
Warsaw Old Town after the Warsaw Uprising, 85% of the city was deliberately destroyed.
Traffic congestion in Bandung, West Java
Aqueduct of Segovia in Spain
Gautrain stopped at the O. R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg
Transjakarta in Indonesia is the longest bus rapid transit system in the world
Baana, a shared-path rail trail in the center of Helsinki
This urban scene in Paramaribo features a few plants growing amidst solid waste and rubble behind some houses.
Profile of an urban heat island
St Stephen's Green, an urban park in Dublin, Ireland
Central Park in New York City
Stock exchanges, characteristic features of the top global cities, are interconnected hubs for capital. Here, a delegation from Australia is shown visiting the London Stock Exchange.
World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C., United States
John Martin's The Fall of Babylon (1831), depicting chaos as the Persian army occupies Babylon, also symbolizes the ruin of decadent civilization in modern times. Lightning striking the Babylonian ziggurat (also representing the Tower of Babel) indicates God's judgment against the city.

Urban-type settlement extends far beyond the traditional boundaries of the city proper in a form of development sometimes described critically as urban sprawl.

Cairo Governorate

Most populated of the governorates of Egypt.

Most populated of the governorates of Egypt.

Mosque in Al-Darb al-Ahmar District of Cairo, Egypt

Because it is completely urbanized, the governorate is considered a city proper, and functions as a municipality.

Mexico City

Capital and largest city of Mexico, and the most populous city in North America.

Capital and largest city of Mexico, and the most populous city in North America.

The city was the place of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral's (1571–1813) 18th century painting. The cathedral was built by the Spaniards over the ruins of the main Aztec temple.
Mexico City in 1628
Palacio de Mineria, Mexico City. The elevation of silver mining as a profession and the ennoblement of silver miners was a development of the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms
A painting of the American assault on the Chapultepec Castle.
Mexican President and later dictator Porfirio Díaz (second from right) commissioned many of the ornate European style buildings constructed from the 1890–1910 and hoped for Mexico City to eventually rival European cities like Paris in opulence
Corpses in front of the National Palace during the Ten Tragic Days. Photographer, Manuel Ramos.
Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera house in San Ángel designed by Juan O'Gorman, an example of 20th-century Modernist architecture in Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
First ladies Paloma Cordero of Mexico (left) and Nancy Reagan of the United States (right) with U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, John Gavin observing the damage done by the 1985 earthquake.
Satellite image of Mexico City
Trajineras in the canals of Xochimilco. Xochimilco and the historic center of Mexico City were declared a World Heritage Site in 1987.
Air pollution over Mexico City. Air quality is poorest during the winter.
The Chapultepec was an important park during the Aztecs whose access had been limited to its nobility, was declared open to the public by a decree of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, it is one of the world's largest city parks.
Lightning in the background of the Torre Mayor
Growth of Mexico city's area from 1900 to 2000
Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Villa de Guadalupe, the main Catholic pilgrimage site in the Americas. It houses the original image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Secretariat of Health building
Central Campus of the University City of the UNAM. Since 2007 the University City is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The National Palace of Mexico
Senate of the Republic
Legislative Palace of San Lázaro
Offices of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexico City's Legislative Assembly building
The 16 boroughs of Mexico City
Federal Police headquarters in Mexico City
The Paseo de la Reforma is a wide avenue designed by Ferdinand von Rosenzweig in the 1860s and was modeled after the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
Palacio de Hierro store
The Turibus runs through many of the most important tourist attractions in the city.
The Art Nouveau/Neoclassical Palacio de Bellas Artes is the prominent cultural center in the city
Receptions Hall at the Museo Nacional de Arte
lReconstruction of the entrance to the Hochob temple in the National Museum of Anthropology
Museo Soumaya
The City Theatre built in 1918.
A guajolota, a tamale torta invention.
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Azteca Stadium, the 21st largest stadium in the world
Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez
Mexico City Arena
Mexico City Metro
Metrobús rapid transit bus stop station at Indios Verdes
The Anillo Periférico and Paseo de la Reforma in Miguel Hidalgo
Bicycles available for rental in Zona Rosa
Mexico City International Airport
Felipe Ángeles International Airport

The 2020 population for the city proper was 9,209,944, with a land area of 1495 km2.

Nairobi

Capital and largest city of Kenya.

Capital and largest city of Kenya.

Nairobi County (red) in surrounding Nairobi Metro (green)
Nairobi in 1899
Entrance to Nairobi railway station in 1899
Nairobi in 1973
Nairobi showing Fedha Towers, ICEA Building, the Nairobi Safari Club and Anniversary Towers
Woodvale Grove, Westlands
Satellite view of Nairobi
River Athi on the eastern side of Nairobi
Rain clouds over estates (Dec. 2019).
Nairobi southern suburbs in 2003
Kibera slums being upgraded to New Apartment by the Kenyan Ministry of housing and United Nations Habitat
Central Park
Kenyatta Avenue with Uhuru Park between Upper Hill and the Nairobi CBD
Co-operative Bank of Kenya headquarters
Kenyatta International Convention Centre with Times Tower in the background
Nairobi is a major financial capital of Africa, and one of the most modern cities in Africa.
I&M Bank headquarters in Nairobi
Prism Tower in Upper Hill
A view of Nairobi from the Kenyatta International Conference Centre
A giraffe at Nairobi National Park, with Nairobi's skyline in background
Nairobi Cinema
Nyayo National Stadium
Basilica of the Holy Family in Nairobi
University of Nairobi
Umma University
Syokimau Railway Station
Jomo Kenyatta International Airport
A matatu
Public transport in Nairobi
Nairobi Terminus
Museum hill interchange, where Uhuru highway links to forest road which is an extension of the Thika superhighway. Nairobi's tall skyscrapers can be seen on the background.
The A104 heading to Nairobi CBD
Eastern Bypass, Nairobi
Nairobi metro map
Nairobi County (red)
Kajiado County (green)
Machakos County (yellow)
Kiambu County (purple)
View of Kibera,
Military helicopter over Westgate Shopping Mall
Nation Centre, headquarters of the Nation Media Group
Jomo Kenyatta statue
Nairobi at sunrise
KICC Auditorium
State House
Nairobi City Hall
Entrance to Parliament
University of Nairobi
Nairobi at sunset
NSSF Building
Anniversary Towers
Times Tower
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The city proper had a population of 4,397,073 in the 2019 census, while the metropolitan area has a population of 9,354,580.

Dayton, Ohio

Sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County.

Sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County.

Dayton in 1870
A photograph of the Miami and Erie Canal from Geography of Ohio, 1923
C-5 Galaxy at Wright-Patterson AFB
Aerial view of Downtown Dayton (NE to SW)
Kettering Tower, Dayton's tallest high-rise
Southeast tower at Miami Valley Hospital
Panorama of Dayton
Liberty Tower
Dayton Regional Bike Trail Map
The Benjamin and Marian Schuster Performing Arts Center: Interior view of main lobby and Wintergarden
Marion's Piazza
Historic Sacred Heart Church
Thunderbirds at the 2009 Dayton Air Show
University of Dayton Arena during Dayton Flyers game
Dayton Daily News building at 1611 S. Main St.
Terminal building at Dayton International Airport
St. Mary's Hall and the Immaculate Conception Chapel at the University of Dayton
Dayton City Seal in sister city Holon, Israel (4th from the left)

According to the city's 2019 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city proper are:

Romania

Country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Old Romanian
Skull from the Peștera cu Oase (the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens in Europe).
Maximum territorial extent of the Kingdom of Dacia during Burebista's reign (early 40s BC.)
Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Dacia's capital during the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus)
Gutthiuda, or the land of the Gothic-speaking Thervingi, and the neighbouring tribes (370s AD)
Vlad III of Wallachia (also known as Vlad the Impaler), medieval ruler of Wallachia
Changes in Romania's territory since 1859
Alexandru Ioan Cuza was the first Domnitor (i.e. Prince) of Romania (at that time the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia) between 1862 and 1866
Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and Germans in pink.
King Carol I of Romania with his nephew Ferdinand I of Romania and great-nephew Carol II of Romania
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern Transylvania was regained after the end of World War II.
American B-24 Liberator flying over a burning oil refinery at Ploiești, as part of Operation Tidal Wave on 1 August 1943. Due to its role as a significant supplier of oil to the Axis, Romania was a prime target of Allied strategic bombing in 1943 and 1944.
King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate by the Communists in late December 1947, concomitant with the Soviet occupation of the country
Nicolae Ceaușescu ruled Romania as its communist leader from 1965 until 1989
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in the Iron Curtain that brought an end to communist rule
An anti-Communist and anti-FSN rally in Bucharest (1990)
Romania saw large waves of protests against judicial reforms during the 2017–2019 Romanian protests
Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of Lisbon
Romania joined NATO in 2004 and hosted its 2008 summit in Bucharest
Topographic map of Romania
Diplomatic missions of Romania
Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO member state that agreed to support increasing its defence spending after the 2017 Trump–Iohannis meeting at the White House
Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch–Romanian exercise at Vadu beach
Romanian Mircea Geoană, Deputy Secretary General of NATO
A proportional representation of Romania exports, 2019
The CEC Palace is situated on Bucharest's Victory Avenue
The Bucharest Stock Exchange Palace, situated in the capital's historical city centre
Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show (2009)
Romania's road network
Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930–2011)
Ethnic map of the Kingdom of Romania based on the 1930 census data
Map of Romanian language frequency as spoken in Romania by districts (according to the 2011 census)
Map highlighting the use of the Romanian language worldwide, both as a native and as a foreign language
The University of Bucharest was opened in 1864
The Colțea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.
Sibiu was the 2007 European Capital of Culture and 2019 European Region of Gastronomy
Timișoara was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2021 but will hold this title in 2023 due to COVID-19 postponement
Christmas market in Bucharest

Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2.2 million, which are planned to be included into a metropolitan area up to 20 times the area of the city proper.

The Mumba Devi Temple, from whom the city of Mumbai may derive its name

Mumbai

Capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the de facto financial centre of India.

Capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the de facto financial centre of India.

The Mumba Devi Temple, from whom the city of Mumbai may derive its name
Kanheri Caves contain Buddhist sculptures and paintings dating from the 1st century CE to the 10th century CE.
The Haji Ali Dargah was built in 1431, when Mumbai was under the rule of the Gujarat Sultanate.
The Madh Fort built by the Portuguese, was one of the most important forts in Salsette.
Two views of the English fort in Bombay, c. 1665
Ships in Bombay Harbour (c. 1731). Bombay emerged as a significant trading town during the mid-18th century.
Municipal Corporation Building, Bombay in 1950 (Victoria Terminus partly visible on far right)
The Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement (Flora Fountain on its left in the background)
Mumbai consists of two revenue districts.
Population density and elevation above sea level in Mumbai, India (2010). Mumbai is especially vulnerable to sea level rise.
Average temperature and precipitation in Mumbai
The Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in Asia.
Three Sixty West Tower B occupied by The Ritz-Carlton is an important and one of the tallest commercial buildings in the city.
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Headquarters of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The BMC is the largest civic organisation in the country.
The Bombay High Court exercises jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
First session of the Indian National Congress in Bombay (28–31 December 1885)
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus, is the headquarters of the Central Railway and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Shree Siddhivinayak Temple
"Parsis of Bombay", a wood engraving, ca. 1878. Mumbai is home to the largest population of Parsis in the world.
The Asiatic Society of Mumbai is one of the oldest public libraries in the city.
Girgaum Chowpatty beach. Beaches are a popular tourist attraction in the city.
The Times of India's first office is opposite the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus where it was founded.
Rajabai Clock Tower at the University of Mumbai is part of The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
University of Mumbai is one of the largest universities in the world.
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay is a premier engineering institute in the country.

As per the Indian government population census of 2011, Mumbai was the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 1.25 crore (12.5 million) living under the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation.

St. Louis

Second-largest city in Missouri.

Second-largest city in Missouri.

The home of Auguste Chouteau in St. Louis. Chouteau and Pierre Laclède founded St. Louis in 1764.
In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.
White men pose, 104 Locust Street, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1852 at Lynch's slave market.
City of St. Louis and Riverfront, 1874
South Broadway after a May 27, 1896, tornado
The Government Building at the 1904 World's Fair
View of the Arch (completed 1965) from Laclede's Landing, the remaining section of St. Louis's commercial riverfront
Wainwright Building (1891), an important early skyscraper designed by Louis Sullivan
A cluster of skyscrapers is located just west of the Gateway Arch and the Mississippi River.
Many houses in Lafayette Square are built with a blending of Greek Revival, Federal and Italianate styles.
French style houses in Lafayette Square
The Delmar Loop is a neighborhood close to Washington University, on the border of the city and St. Louis County.
Rivers in the St. Louis area
The Captains' Return statue inundated by the Mississippi River, 2010.
Tower Grove Park in spring
The Missouri Botanical Garden
Map of racial distribution in St. Louis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
Pruitt–Igoe was a large housing project constructed in 1954, which became infamous for poverty, crime and segregation. It was demolished in 1972.
The Anheuser-Busch packaging plant in St. Louis
Barnes-Jewish Hospital, which is affiliated with the Washington University School of Medicine
The Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis
The St. Louis Art Museum in Forest Park
Busch Stadium in downtown St. Louis
The Enterprise Center in downtown St. Louis
The Sinquefield Cup chess tournament is hosted annually in St. Louis
Forest Park features a variety of attractions, including the St. Louis Zoo, the St. Louis Art Museum, the Missouri History Museum, and the St. Louis Science Center.
The Jewel Box, a greenhouse and event venue in Forest Park
St. Louis Mayor Tishaura Jones in 2017
Brookings Hall at Washington University in St. Louis
St. Louis University High School was founded in 1818. Their current building pictured here was built in 1924.
The former St. Louis Post-Dispatch building in downtown St. Louis
Interstate 64 crossing the Mississippi in Downtown St. Louis
St. Louis MetroLink Red Line train leaving St. Louis Union Station
University City-Big Bend Subway Station along the Blue Line, near Washington University.
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Control tower and main terminal at St. Louis Lambert
An eastbound Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis freight train passing under the Hampton Avenue viaduct.
Bus passing under the St. Louis Science Center walkway

In 2020, the city proper had a population of 301,578, while the bi-state metropolitan area, which extends into Illinois, had an estimated population of over 2.8 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, and the 20th-largest in the United States.

1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

Americas

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America.

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America.

1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection
America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.
The Plaza Occidental in Copán, Honduras
Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory.
Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
Christopher Columbus leads expedition to the New World, 1492.
Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.
Satellite photo of the Americas on Earth
Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas
Climate zones of the Americas in the Köppen climate classification system.
Languages spoken in the Americas
Mexico City – Largest metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of 22,300,000 in 2017
São Paulo – Largest city in the Americas, with a population of 12,038,175 (city) in 2016
New York City – Largest urban area in the Americas, with a population of 18,351,295 in 2010

City proper