A report on Civil Rights Act of 1964

United States President John F. Kennedy addresses the nation on civil rights on June 11, 1963
Following the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, civil rights leaders met with President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson to discuss civil rights legislation.
First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X at the United States Capitol on March 26, 1964, listening to the Senate debate on the bill. This was the only time the two men ever met; their meeting lasted only one minute.
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King Jr.
A map showing the each Senator's Vote on the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
The record of the roll call vote kept by the House Clerk on final passage of the bill
Engrossing copy of H.R. 7152, which added sex to the categories of persons against whom the bill prohibited discrimination, as passed by the House of Representatives
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson speaks to a television camera at the signing of the Civil Rights Act in 1964
A map showing the each Senator's Vote on the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

Landmark civil rights and labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.

- Civil Rights Act of 1964
United States President John F. Kennedy addresses the nation on civil rights on June 11, 1963

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Oval Office photo, 1964

Lyndon B. Johnson

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American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969.

American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969.

Oval Office photo, 1964
Seven-year-old Johnson with his trademark cowboy hat, c. 1915.
Johnson's boyhood home in Johnson City, Texas
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor James V. Allred of Texas, and Johnson, 1937. Johnson later used an edited version of this photo, with Allred airbrushed out, in his 1941 senatorial campaign.
LCDR Johnson, March 1942
Johnson as U.S. senator from Texas
Senate Desk X, used by all Democratic leaders, including Johnson, since Joseph Taylor Robinson
Johnson giving "The Treatment" to Senator Richard Russell in 1963, shortly after becoming president.
President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson outside the White House prior to a ceremony
Vice President Johnson and Attorney General Robert Kennedy meeting with civil rights leaders at the White House on June 22, 1963.
Opening Day of the 1961 baseball season. President Kennedy throws out the first ball at Griffith Stadium, the home field of the Washington Senators, as LBJ and Hubert Humphrey look on.
Vice President Johnson visiting Finland in September 1963; here seen with Mrs. Johnson, while Urho Kekkonen, the President of Finland, welcomes them.
LBJ is sworn in on Air Force One by Judge Sarah Hughes as Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. Kennedy look on.
Meeting with civil rights leaders Martin Luther King Jr. (left), Whitney Young, and James Farmer in the Oval Office in 1964
President Lyndon Johnson (left), alongside Illinois AFL-CIO President Reuben Soderstrom (center) and Vice President Stanley Johnson (right), speaks to the delegates of the 1964 Illinois AFL-CIO convention.
1964 presidential election results
President Lyndon B. Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks at the signing of the Voting Rights Act on August 6, 1965
President Johnson signs the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 as Sen. Edward Kennedy, Sen. Robert Kennedy, and others look on
Former president Truman and wife Bess at Medicare Bill signing in 1965, as Lady Bird and Hubert Humphrey look on
Former President Lyndon B. Johnson (center left) and Vice President Spiro Agnew (center right) witness the liftoff of Apollo 11.
Aftermath from a race riot in Washington D.C., April 1968
Lady Bird Johnson and LBJ with Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos on September 12, 1966
Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Queen Farah Pahlavi with the Johnsons on their visit to the United States
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland in Vietnam 1965
Awarding a medal to a U.S. soldier during a visit to Vietnam in 1966
Philippines President Marcos hosting the leaders of SEATO nations during the Manila Conference on the Vietnam War
Johnson greeting a crowd, 1966
Johnson talking with his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1967
Vietnam War protestors march at the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. on October 21, 1967. Support for the war was dropping and the anti-Vietnam War movement strengthened.
Walt Whitman Rostow shows President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area in February 1968
Tens of thousands of civilians were killed during the American bombing of North Vietnam in Operation Rolling Thunder.
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin (left) next to Johnson during the Glassboro Summit Conference
Countries visited by Johnson during his presidency
President Johnson meets with Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the White House, July 1968.
Johnson in the Oval Office in 1969, a few days before Richard Nixon's inauguration
With the appointment of Thurgood Marshall, Johnson placed the first African American on the Supreme Court.
Johnson with longer hair during an interview in August 1972, five months before his death
Johnson wearing a cowboy hat at his ranch in Texas, 1972
Johnson's grave
Johnson lying in state in the United States Capitol rotunda
Johnson's image as it appears in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Johnson with his family in the Yellow Oval Room, Christmas 1968
Front view of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum located on the campus of the University of Texas in Austin, Texas
Entrance to the Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac

His civil rights legacy was shaped by signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.

Oval Office portrait, 1963

John F. Kennedy

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American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination near the end of his third year in office.

American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination near the end of his third year in office.

Oval Office portrait, 1963
Kennedy's birthplace in Brookline, Massachusetts
Kennedy in a football uniform at Dexter School (Massachusetts), 1926
The Kennedy family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, with JFK at top left in the white shirt, 1931
Lieutenant (junior grade) Kennedy (standing at right) with his PT-109 crew, 1943
Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109, 1943
Kennedy endorsing Adlai Stevenson II for the presidential nomination at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Results of the 1958 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts. Kennedy's margin of victory of 874,608 votes was the largest in Massachusetts political history.
1960 campaign poster
Kennedy and Richard Nixon participate in the nation's second televised presidential debate, Washington, D.C., 1960
Chief Justice Earl Warren administers the presidential oath of office to John F. Kennedy at the Capitol, January 20, 1961.
Kennedy with retired president Dwight D. Eisenhower at Camp David
Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy during his presidency
Kennedy and Vice President Johnson walking on the White House grounds
Kennedy confers with Attorney General Robert Kennedy, October 1962
Kennedy signs the Proclamation for Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba in the Oval Office, October 23, 1962
News conference, March 23, 1961
Kennedy and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1962
Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963
Kennedy delivering his speech in West Berlin
Kennedy with Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir, December 27, 1962
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Kennedy, and U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in the White House Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962
Kennedy's motorcade through Cork, Ireland on June 28, 1963
Kennedy signs the Partial Test Ban Treaty, a major milestone in early nuclear disarmament
Kennedy signing the Manpower Development and Training Act, March 1962
Thurgood Marshall, appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit by Kennedy in May 1961
Kennedy with Boston Mayor John F. Collins (1960–1968) and his wife. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy issued Executive Order 11063 requiring all federal agencies to prevent racial discrimination in federally-funded subsidized housing in the United States.
Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights, June 11, 1963
Kennedy meetings with leaders of the March on Washington in the Oval Office, August 28, 1963
Accompanied by astronaut John Glenn, Kennedy inspects the Project Mercury capsule Friendship 7, February 23, 1962
Wernher von Braun and Kennedy
Kennedy proposing a program to Congress that will land men on the Moon, May 1961. Johnson and Sam Rayburn are seated behind him.
John F. Kennedy, and members of his Cabinet
The Kennedys and the Connallys in the presidential limousine moments before the assassination in Dallas
President Kennedy's family leaving his funeral at the U.S. Capitol Building
The Kennedy brothers: Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Senator Ted Kennedy, and President John F. Kennedy in 1963
The First Family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, 1962
Kennedy and Jackie leaving the hospital following his spinal surgery, December 1954
Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Marilyn Monroe, and John Kennedy talk during the president's May 19, 1962, early birthday party, where Monroe publicly serenaded Kennedy with "Happy Birthday, Mr. President"
The Kennedy half dollar was first issued in 1964
John F. Kennedy statue outside the Massachusetts State House in Boston
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, in Boston
Official White House portrait of John F. Kennedy, by Aaron Shikler
President's and his wife's graves at John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame memorial, Arlington National Cemetery

After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Revenue Act of 1964.

Democratic Party (United States)

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One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States.

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States.

Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States (1829–1837) and the first Democratic president.
Martin Van Buren was the eighth president of the United States (1837–1841) and the second Democratic president.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas
The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland, the only president with non-consecutive terms
Leaders of the Democratic Party during the first half of the 20th century on 14 June 1913: Secretary of State William J. Bryan, Josephus Daniels, President Woodrow Wilson, Breckinridge Long, William Phillips, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, 32nd and 33rd presidents of the United States (1933–1945; 1945–1953), featured on a campaign poster for the 1944 presidential election
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, 35th and 36th presidents of the United States (1961–1963, 1963–1969)
Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–1981), delivering the State of the Union Address in 1979
Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), at The Pentagon in 1998
Barack Obama speaking to College Democrats of America in 2007
President Barack Obama meeting with the Blue Dog Coalition in the State Dining Room of the White House in 2009
Eleanor Roosevelt at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law at the White House on March 23, 2010
Secretary of State John Kerry addressing delegates at the United Nations before signing the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016
Shirley Chisholm was the first major-party African American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.
President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Immigration Act of 1965 as Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and others look on
Then-Senator Barack Obama shaking hands with an American soldier in Basra, Iraq in 2008
President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meeting with President Barack Obama at Ben Gurion Airport in 2013
Self-identified Democrats (blue) versus self-identified Republicans (red) (January–June 2010 data)
Higher percentages of Democrats than Republicans are members of union households.
Elected at age 33, Jon Ossoff is currently the youngest member of the U.S. Senate.
Hillary Clinton was the first woman to be nominated for president by a major party.
Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg
Vice President Kamala Harris
Julián Castro served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
U.S. Senator Tammy Duckworth
Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
U.S. Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the core bases of the two parties shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.

Alabama police in 1965 attack voting rights marchers on "Bloody Sunday", the first of the Selma to Montgomery marches

Voting Rights Act of 1965

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Landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

Landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

Alabama police in 1965 attack voting rights marchers on "Bloody Sunday", the first of the Selma to Montgomery marches
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks at the signing of the Voting Rights Act on August 6, 1965
United States President George W. Bush signs amendments to the Act in July 2006
The first page of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
States and counties encompassed by the Act's coverage formula in January 2008 (excluding bailed-out jurisdictions). Several counties subsequently bailed out, but the majority of the map accurately depicts covered jurisdictions before the Supreme Court's decision in Shelby County v. Holder (2013), which declared the coverage formula unconstitutional.
Final page of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the Senate Hubert Humphrey, and Speaker of the House John McCormack

Congress responded to rampant discrimination against racial minorities in public accommodations and government services by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Thurmond in 1961

Strom Thurmond

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American politician, military officer, and attorney who represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to 2003.

American politician, military officer, and attorney who represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to 2003.

Thurmond in 1961
Strom Thurmond as Governor
Statue of Thurmond outside the South Carolina State Capitol
Thurmond & Yarborough after the wrestling match
Thurmond with President Richard Nixon in 1969
Thurmond (far right) campaigning for Ronald Reagan in Columbia, South Carolina in 1980
Margaret Thatcher and Thurmond at a state dinner in 1981
Thurmond and Vice President George H. W. Bush at a 1986 gubernatorial campaign rally for Representative Carroll A. Campbell Jr.
President Ronald Reagan with Thurmond in the Oval Office in 1987
Thurmond during his later career
In the text accompanying Strom Thurmond's statue at the Statehouse grounds, the phrase: "The father of four children," had the "four" replaced with "five" after Thurmond's fatherhood of Essie Mae Washington-Williams became public.
The Thurmond family with President Gerald Ford in 1976
President George W. Bush with Thurmond on his 100th birthday in 2002
Bust of Thurmond by Frederick E. Hart, held by the U.S. Senate
Thurmond receives the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George H. W. Bush, 1993

In the 1960s, he voted against the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Official portrait, 1965

Hubert Humphrey

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American pharmacist and politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969.

American pharmacist and politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969.

Official portrait, 1965
Humphrey working as a pharmacist in his father's pharmacy.
Humphrey at the 1948 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.
Senator Humphrey
In the 1960 primaries, Humphrey won South Dakota and Washington, D.C.
Vice President-elect Humphrey alongside Coretta Scott King and Civil Rights Leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Humphrey (right) with President Johnson (left) horse-riding in LBJ ranch on November 4, 1964.
Vice President Humphrey at a meeting in the Oval Office, June 21, 1965
Humphrey with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin and Gemini 4 astronauts at the 1965 Paris Air Show
Vice President Hubert Humphrey, President Lyndon Johnson, and General Creighton Abrams in a Cabinet Room meeting in March 1968
Hubert Humphrey campaigning for President in 1968
Senator Hubert Humphrey with Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter, in 1976. California Governor Jerry Brown is at right.
1972 campaign logo
Senator Hubert Humphrey with President Jimmy Carter aboard Air Force One in 1977
Burial plot of Hubert and Muriel Humphrey at Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis

During this time, he was the lead author of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, introduced the first initiative to create the Peace Corps, and chaired the Select Committee on Disarmament.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signing the Civil Rights Act of 1957 on September 9, 1957

Civil Rights Act of 1957

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The first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

The first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signing the Civil Rights Act of 1957 on September 9, 1957

Congress would later pass far more effective civil rights laws in the form of the Civil Rights Act of 1960, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

U.S. Senator from Michigan Jacob M. Howard, author of the Citizenship Clause

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

Adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

U.S. Senator from Michigan Jacob M. Howard, author of the Citizenship Clause
Rep. John Bingham of Ohio was the principal author of the Equal Protection Clause
Thurgood Marshall served as chief counsel in the landmark Fourteenth Amendment decision Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
Senate and House votes on the Fourteenth Amendment
Form of the Letter of Transmittal of the Fourteenth Amendment to the several states for its ratification

However, Congress can sometimes reach such discrimination via other parts of the Constitution such as the Commerce Clause which Congress used to enact the Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- the Supreme Court upheld this approach in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States (1964).

The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of people who migrated to America for work, saying "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free..." In 2013, in a 155.5 million working population, union membership was 35.9% in the public sector, 6.6% in the private sector. In 2017, unemployment was 4.3%, excluding people in prison. The US ranks 28th in the world inequality-adjusted human development index.

United States labor law

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United States labor law sets the rights and duties for employees, labor unions, and employers in the United States.

United States labor law sets the rights and duties for employees, labor unions, and employers in the United States.

The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of people who migrated to America for work, saying "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free..." In 2013, in a 155.5 million working population, union membership was 35.9% in the public sector, 6.6% in the private sector. In 2017, unemployment was 4.3%, excluding people in prison. The US ranks 28th in the world inequality-adjusted human development index.
After the Declaration of Independence, slavery in the US was progressively abolished in the north, but only finished by the 13th Amendment in 1865 near the end of the American Civil War.
Eleanor Roosevelt believed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 "may well become the international Magna Carta of all". Based on the President's call for a Second Bill of Rights in 1944, articles 22–24 elevated rights to "social security", "just and favourable conditions of work", and the "right to rest and leisure" to be as important as the "right to own property".
"Newsboys" in L.A. were held in the leading case, NLRB v Hearst Publications, Inc, to be employees with labor rights, not independent contractors, on account of their unequal bargaining power.
In September 2015, the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency held that Uber drivers are controlled and sanctioned by the company and are therefore not self-employed.
Employment contracts are subject to minimum rights in state and federal statute, and those created by collective agreements.
The real federal minimum wage has declined by one third since 1969. Lower line is nominal dollars. Top line is inflation-adjusted to 2020 dollars.
People have campaigned for a $15 an hour minimum wage, because the real minimum wage has fallen by more than 33% compared to 1968. In "tipped" jobs, some states still enable employers to take their workers' tips for between $2.13 and the $7.25 minimum wage per hour.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 article 23 requires "reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay", but there is no federal or state right to paid annual leave: Americans have the least in the developed world.
Because there is no right to education and child care for children under five, the costs of child care fall on parents. But in 2016, four states had legislated for paid family leave.
Investment managers, like Morgan Stanley and all pension trustees, are fiduciaries. This means they must avoid conflicts of interest. During a takeover bid, Donovan v Bierwirth held trustees must take advice or not vote on corporate stocks if in doubt about conflicts.
The Workplace Democracy Act of 1999, proposed by Bernie Sanders but not yet passed, would give every employee the representatives on boards of their pension plans, to control how vote are cast on corporate stocks. Currently investment managers control most voting rights in the economy using "other people's money".
The US Supreme Court's policy of preemption since 1953 means federal collective bargaining rules cancel state rules, even if state law is more beneficial to employees. Despite preemption, many unions, corporations, and states have experimented with direct participation rights, to get a "fair day's wage for a fair day's work".
Richard Trumka was the late president of the AFL–CIO, a federation of unions, with 12.5m members. The Change to Win Federation has 5.5m members in affiliated unions. The two have negotiated merging to create a united American labor movement.
Sharan Burrow leads the International Trade Union Confederation, which represents labor union members worldwide, via each national group including the AFL–CIO.
After 1981 air traffic control strike, when Ronald Reagan fired every air traffic controller, the National Labor Relations Board was staffed by people opposed to collective bargaining. Between 2007 and 2013 the NLRB was shut down as the President and then Senate refused to make appointments.
The proposed Employee Free Choice Act, sponsored repeatedly by Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders and Democrat representatives, would require employers to bargain in 90 days or go to arbitration, if a simple majority of employees sign cards supporting the union. It has been blocked by Republicans in Congress.
Unfair labor practices, made unlawful by the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 §153, prohibit employers discriminating against people who organize a union and vote to get a voice at work.
As union membership declined income inequality rose, because labor unions have been the main way to participate at work. The US does not yet require employee representatives on boards of directors, or elected work councils.
All workers, like the Arizona teachers in 2019, are guaranteed the right to take collective action, including strikes, by international law, federal law and most state laws.
Cesar Chavez organized the United Farm Workers and campaigned for social justice under the slogan "Yes we can" and "Sí, se puede".
Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders co-sponsored the Reward Work Act, introduced by Tammy Baldwin, for at least one third of listed company boards to be elected by employees, and more for large corporations. In 1980 the United Auto Workers collectively agreed Chrysler Corp employees would be on the board of directors, but despite experiments, today asset managers monopolize voting rights in corporations with "other people's money".
Powered by a solar farm, the Volkswagen plant at Chattanooga, Tennessee has debated introducing work councils to give employees and its labor union more of a voice at work.
The world's first general equality law, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, followed the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. The head of the movement, Martin Luther King Jr. told America, "I have a dream that one day ... little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers."
A constitutional right to equality, based on the equal protection clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments has been disputed. 125 years after Harlan J wrote his famous dissent that all social institutions should be bound to equal rights, Barack Obama won election for President.
Rosie the Riveter symbolized women factory workers in World War II. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 banned pay discrimination within workplaces.
The Paycheck Fairness Act, repeatedly proposed by Democrats such as Hillary Clinton, would prevent employer defenses to sex discrimination that are related to gender. It has been rejected by Republicans in the United States Congress.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, suffering from polio, required a wheelchair through his Presidency.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt brought unemployment down from over 20% to under 2%, with the New Deal's investment in jobs during the Great Depression.
The slogan "you're fired!" was popularized by Donald Trump's TV show, The Apprentice before he became president. This reflects the "at will employment" doctrine that deprives employees of job security, and lets people become unemployed for arbitrary reasons.
American workers do not yet have a right to vote on employer layoff decisions, even though the US government helped draft laws for other countries to have elected work councils.
Unemployment since WW1 has been lower under Democratic presidents and higher under Republican presidents. The high rate of incarceration raised real unemployment by around 1.5% since 1980.
The Works Progress Administration from 1935 to 1943, created 8.5m jobs spending $1.3bn a year to get out of the Great Depression.
Eugene V. Debs, founder of the American Railway Union and five-time presidential candidate, was jailed twice for organizing the Pullman Strike and denouncing World War I. His life story is told in a documentary by Bernie Sanders.
Right-to-work states
The world's first general equality law, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, followed the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. The head of the movement, Martin Luther King Jr. told America, "I have a dream that one day ... little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers."

Since the Civil Rights Act of 1964, all employing entities and labor unions have a duty to treat employees equally, without discrimination based on "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin."

Arkansas voted Democratic in all 23 presidential elections from 1876 through 1964; other states were not quite as solid but generally supported Democrats for president.

Solid South

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The electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in those states.

The electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in those states.

Arkansas voted Democratic in all 23 presidential elections from 1876 through 1964; other states were not quite as solid but generally supported Democrats for president.
United States during the Civil War. Blue represents free Union states, including those admitted during the war; light blue represents border states; red represents Confederate states. Unshaded areas were not states before or during the Civil War
The "Solid South" from 1880–1912.
Missouri goes for Republican Theodore Roosevelt in the 1904 election. (Cartoon by John T. McCutcheon.)

The Southern bloc existed especially between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964.