U.S. Senator from Michigan Jacob M. Howard, author of the Citizenship Clause
Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause.
United States President John F. Kennedy addresses the nation on civil rights on June 11, 1963
Rep. John Bingham of Ohio was the principal author of the Equal Protection Clause
This drawing by E. W. Kemble shows a sleeping Congress with a broken 14th Amendment. It makes the case that Congress ignored its constitutional obligations to Black Americans.
Following the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, civil rights leaders met with President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson to discuss civil rights legislation.
Thurgood Marshall served as chief counsel in the landmark Fourteenth Amendment decision Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
The Court that decided Plessy
First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Senate and House votes on the Fourteenth Amendment
The U.S. Supreme Court Building opened in 1935, inscribed with the words "Equal Justice Under Law" which were inspired by the Equal Protection Clause.
Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X at the United States Capitol on March 26, 1964, listening to the Senate debate on the bill. This was the only time the two men ever met; their meeting lasted only one minute.
Form of the Letter of Transmittal of the Fourteenth Amendment to the several states for its ratification
The Court that decided Brown
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King Jr.
Justice John Marshall Harlan II sought to interpret the Equal Protection Clause in the context of Section 2 of the same amendment
A map showing the each Senator's Vote on the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
The record of the roll call vote kept by the House Clerk on final passage of the bill
Engrossing copy of H.R. 7152, which added sex to the categories of persons against whom the bill prohibited discrimination, as passed by the House of Representatives
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson speaks to a television camera at the signing of the Civil Rights Act in 1964
A map showing the each Senator's Vote on the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

The Equal Protection Clause is part of the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

- Equal Protection Clause

Congress asserted its authority to legislate under several different parts of the United States Constitution, principally its power to regulate interstate commerce under Article One (section 8), its duty to guarantee all citizens equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment, and its duty to protect voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment.

- Civil Rights Act of 1964

The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, and Equal Protection Clause.

- Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

However, Congress can sometimes reach such discrimination via other parts of the Constitution such as the Commerce Clause which Congress used to enact the Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- the Supreme Court upheld this approach in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States (1964).

- Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

In fact, much of the integration in the 1960s happened in response not to Brown but to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

- Equal Protection Clause
U.S. Senator from Michigan Jacob M. Howard, author of the Citizenship Clause

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