Civil liberties

individual libertypersonal freedomcivil libertycivil libertarianlibertiescivilfreedomcivil libertarianscivil rightsindividual liberties
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.wikipedia
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Freedom of assembly

assemblyassemblefree assembly
Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life. The Constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees in theory many of the same rights and civil liberties as the U.S. except to bear arms, i.e.: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of association and assembly, freedom to choose language, to due process, to a fair trial, privacy, freedom to vote, right for education, etc. However, human rights groups like Amnesty International have warned that Vladimir Putin has seriously curtailed freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and freedom of association amidst growing authoritarianism.
The right to freedom of association is recognized as a human right, a political right and a civil liberty.

European Convention on Human Rights

European Convention of Human RightsECHRConvention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
Other states have enacted similar laws through a variety of legal means, including signing and ratifying or otherwise giving effect to key conventions such as the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The Convention was designed to incorporate a traditional civil liberties approach to securing "effective political democracy", from the strongest traditions in the United Kingdom, France and other member states of the fledgling Council of Europe, as said by Guido Raimondi, President of European Court of Human Rights:

Liberal democracy

constitutional democracyliberal democraticliberal democracies
These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, incorporated in the fundamental law of the land and are enforceable in a court of law.
Also referred to as Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people.

Right to privacy

invasion of privacyprivacy rightsright of privacy
Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life.
This right to privacy has been the justification for decisions involving a wide range of civil liberties cases, including Pierce v. Society of Sisters, which invalidated a successful 1922 Oregon initiative requiring compulsory public education, Griswold v. Connecticut, where a right to privacy was first established explicitly, Roe v. Wade, which struck down a Texas abortion law and thus restricted state powers to enforce laws against abortion, and Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down a Texas sodomy law and thus eliminated state powers to enforce laws against sodomy.

Constitution of the United Kingdom

British constitutionconstitutionEnglish constitution
The first Japanese attempt to a bill of rights was in the 19th century Meiji constitution (1890), which took both the Prussian (1850) and British constitutions as basic models.
While that convention reflected norms and cases decided under UK statutes and the common law on civil liberties, the UK accepted that people could appeal to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, if domestic remedies were insufficient.

Freedom of religion

religious freedomreligious libertyfreedom of worship
Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life.

Liberty

freedomliberationliberties
Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life.

Human Rights Act 1998

Human Rights Acthuman rights1998 Human Rights Act
The Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the great majority of Convention rights directly into UK law.
It was designed to incorporate a traditional civil liberties approach to securing "effective political democracy", from the strong traditions of freedom and liberty in the United Kingdom.

American Civil Liberties Union

ACLUAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)ACLU Foundation
The ACLU provides legal assistance in cases when it considers civil liberties to be at risk.

Canadian Civil Liberties Association

The Canadian Civil Liberties Association (CCLA; Association Canadienne des Libertés Civiles) is a nonprofit organization in Canada devoted to the defence of civil liberties and constitutional rights.

Civil libertarianism

civil libertariancivil libertarianslibertarian
Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure and so on).

List of civil rights leaders

civil rights leadercivil rights leaders List of civil rights leaders
Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.

Liberty (advocacy group)

LibertyNational Council for Civil LibertiesLiberty (pressure group)
Liberty, formerly called the National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL), is an advocacy group and membership organisation based in the United Kingdom, which campaigns to challenge injustice, protect civil liberties and promote human rights – through the courts, in Parliament and in the wider community.

Libertarianism

libertarianlibertarianslibertarian state
In the United States, libertarianism advocates civil liberties, natural law, free-market capitalism and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
In many ways, it resembles the U.S. Constitution prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and that is because it came into life during the Allied occupation of Japan.
Its international influence is found in similarities of phrasing and borrowed passages in other constitutions, as well as in the principles of the rule of law, separation of powers and recognition of individual rights.

Rutherford Institute

John W. WhiteheadThe Rutherford InstituteJohn Whitehead
The Rutherford Institute is a non-profit organization based in Charlottesville, Virginia, US dedicated to the defense of civil liberties and human rights.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association; an independent judiciary and public trial by jury; and the abolition of aristocratic privileges.

Statewatch

Statewatch is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 that monitors the state, justice and home affairs (JHA), security and civil liberties in the European Union.

David Davis (British politician)

David DavisDavid Davis MPRt. Hon. David Davis MP
In June 2008 the then Shadow Home Secretary David Davis resigned his parliamentary seat over what he described as the "erosion of civil liberties" by the then Labour government, and was re-elected on a civil liberties platform (although he was not opposed by candidates of other major parties).
On 12 June 2008, Davis resigned from the Shadow Cabinet and announced his resignation as an MP, in order to force a by-election, and cause a wider debate on the single issue of what he believed to be the erosion of civil liberties.

Federal Constitutional Court

Federal Constitutional Court of GermanyBundesverfassungsgerichtGerman Constitutional Court
Following the "Austrian System", the people have the right to appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ("Bundesverfassungsgericht") if they feel their civil rights are being violated.

Freedom of association

associationright of associationfree association
The Constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees in theory many of the same rights and civil liberties as the U.S. except to bear arms, i.e.: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of association and assembly, freedom to choose language, to due process, to a fair trial, privacy, freedom to vote, right for education, etc. However, human rights groups like Amnesty International have warned that Vladimir Putin has seriously curtailed freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and freedom of association amidst growing authoritarianism.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

Judicial interpretation

constitutional interpretationinterpretationLegal interpretation
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.