Civil rights movement

American Civil Rights Movementcivil rightscivil rights eracivil rights activistcivil-rightscivil rights leadercivil rights struggleAmerican civil rightscivil rights activismcivil rights legislation
The civil rights movement (also known as the American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long struggle by African Americans to end legalized racial discrimination, disenfranchisement and racial segregation in the United States.wikipedia
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Emmett Till

J.W. MilamRoy BryantEmmett Louis Till
The lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, and the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide.
Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement.

Civil disobedience

disobedienceNon Cooperation MovementCivil Disobedience Movement
Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities.
It has inspired Mahatma Gandhi in his protests for Indian independence against the British Raj; and Martin Luther King Jr.'s peaceful protests during the civil rights movement in the US.

Selma to Montgomery marches

Bloody SundaySelma to Montgomery marchSelma Voting Rights Movement
Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the civil rights movement.

Black Power movement

Black PowerBlack Power Movementsblack empowerment movements
The emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence.
The movement grew out of the civil rights movement, as black activists experimented with forms of self-advocacy ranging from political lobbying to armed struggle.

Racial segregation in the United States

segregationracial segregationsegregated
The civil rights movement (also known as the American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long struggle by African Americans to end legalized racial discrimination, disenfranchisement and racial segregation in the United States.
The repeal of "separate but equal" laws was a major focus of the Civil Rights Movement.

Greensboro sit-ins

Greensboro FourThe Greensboro Foursit-in
Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
While not the first sit-in of the Civil Rights Movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, and also the most well-known sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement.

Ku Klux Klan

KKKKlansmanKlansmen
Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement, often using violence and murder to suppress activists.

Alabama

ALState of AlabamaAlabamian
Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
African Americans continued to press in the 1950s and 1960s to end disenfranchisement and segregation in the state through the civil rights movement, including legal challenges.

Nashville sit-ins

sit-ins1905 Negro streetcar strikeNashville Lunch-Counter Sit-Ins
Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
Many of the organizers of the Nashville sit-ins went on to become important leaders in the Civil Rights Movement.

Desegregation in the United States

desegregationdesegregateddesegregate
Invigorated by the victory of Brown and frustrated by the lack of immediate practical effect, private citizens increasingly rejected gradualist, legalistic approaches as the primary tool to bring about desegregation.
Desegregation was long a focus of the Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, particularly desegregation of the school systems and the military (see Military history of African Americans).

Booker T. Washington

Booker T WashingtonList of books written by Booker T. WashingtonBooker Taliaferro Washington
In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, to dine at the White House, making him the first African American to attend an official dinner there.
Decades after Washington's death in 1915, the civil rights movement of the 1950s took a more active and militant approach, which was also based on new grassroots organizations based in the South, such as Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Nonviolence

nonviolentnon-violencenon-violent
Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities.
Movements most often associated with nonviolence are the non-cooperation campaign for Indian independence led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and the People Power Revolution in the Philippines.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The civil rights movement (also known as the American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long struggle by African Americans to end legalized racial discrimination, disenfranchisement and racial segregation in the United States.
The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead.

Great Migration (African American)

Great MigrationThe Great Migrationmigrated
A total of nearly seven million blacks left the South in what was known as the Great Migration, most during and after World War II.
Since the Civil Rights Movement, a less rapid reverse migration has occurred.

Reconstruction era

ReconstructionpostbellumCongressional Reconstruction
The movement has its origins in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, although the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s after years of direct actions and grassroots protests.
A "Second Reconstruction", sparked by the Civil Rights Movement, led to civil rights laws in 1964 and 1965 that ended legal segregation and re-opened the polls to blacks.

Rosa Parks

ParksRosa L. ParksAfrican-American Civil Rights activist of the same name
But when Rosa Parks was arrested in December, Jo Ann Gibson Robinson of the Montgomery Women's Political Council put the bus boycott protest in motion.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr.Martin Luther KingDr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Christian minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights Movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968.

Red Summer

Red Summer of 1919American Red SummerAmerican Red Summer of 1919
Reflecting social tensions after World War I, as veterans struggled to return to the workforce and labor unions were organizing, the Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of white race riots against blacks that took place in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919.
The riots were extensively documented in the press, which, along with the federal government, feared socialist and communist influence on the black civil rights movement following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.

White flight

massive outflow of city residents to the suburbsurban exodusmiddle-class flight
Suburbanization became connected with white flight by this time, because whites were better established economically to move to newer housing.
Migration of middle-class white populations was observed during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s out of cities such as Cleveland, Detroit, Kansas City and Oakland, although racial segregation of public schools had ended there long before the US Supreme Court's decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.

Claudette Colvin

After Claudette Colvin was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus in March 1955, a bus boycott was considered and rejected.
Claudette Colvin (born September 5, 1939) is a retired American nurse aide who was a pioneer of the 1950s civil rights movement.

White supremacy

white supremacistwhite supremacistswhite supremacism
Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the mid-20th century, resulting in the civil rights movement.

Ralph Abernathy

Ralph David AbernathyAbernathyRalph D. Abernathy
In 1957, Dr. King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, the leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, joined with other church leaders who had led similar boycott efforts, such as Rev. C. K. Steele of Tallahassee and Rev. T. J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, and other activists such as Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, Ella Baker, A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison, to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
As a leader of the Civil Rights Movement, he was a close friend and mentor of Martin Luther King Jr. He collaborated with King to create the Montgomery Improvement Association which led to the Montgomery bus boycott.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
During this period, the white-dominated Democratic Party maintained political control of the South.
Issues facing parties and the United States after World War II included the Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement.

A. Philip Randolph

Asa Philip RandolphA. Phillip RandolphA. Philip Randolph Education Fund
In 1957, Dr. King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, the leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, joined with other church leaders who had led similar boycott efforts, such as Rev. C. K. Steele of Tallahassee and Rev. T. J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, and other activists such as Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, Ella Baker, A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison, to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, the American labor movement, and socialist political parties.