Clade

cladesgroupcladisticsubcladesphylogenetic clademonophyleticsubcladediscrete groupevolutionary groupgroups
A clade (from, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".wikipedia
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Lineage (evolution)

lineagelineagesevolutionary lineages
A clade (from, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
For example, the tree in Figure 1 shows the separation of life into three ancient clades: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

Rodent

rodentsRodentiaRodentia indet.
Many commonly named groups, rodents and insects for example, are clades because, in each case, the group consists of a common ancestor with all its descendant branches.
Nonetheless, Rodentia and Lagomorpha are sister groups, sharing a most recent common ancestor and forming the clade of Glires.

Dinosaur

dinosaursDinosaurianon-avian dinosaurs
Rodents, for example, are a branch of mammals that split off after the end of the period when the clade Dinosauria stopped being the dominant terrestrial vertebrates 66 million years ago.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
Rodents, for example, are a branch of mammals that split off after the end of the period when the clade Dinosauria stopped being the dominant terrestrial vertebrates 66 million years ago.
Mammals are the only living members of the clade Synapsida, which together with Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) form the Amniota clade.

Kingdom (biology)

kingdomkingdomssubkingdom
The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further.
, there is widespread agreement that the Rhizaria belong with the Stramenopiles and the Alveolata, in a clade dubbed the SAR supergroup, so that Rhizaria is not one of the main eukaryote groups.

Cladogenesis

splitcladogeneticsplitting
The term "clade" was coined in 1957 by the biologist Julian Huxley to refer to the result of cladogenesis, a concept Huxley borrowed from Bernhard Rensch.
Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting of a parent species into two distinct species, forming a clade.

Insect

Insectainsectsbugs
Many commonly named groups, rodents and insects for example, are clades because, in each case, the group consists of a common ancestor with all its descendant branches.
In the Pancrustacea theory, insects, together with Entognatha, Remipedia, and Cephalocarida, make up a natural clade labeled Miracrustacea.

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic.
Their basic unit, therefore, is the clade rather than the taxon.

Linnaean taxonomy

LinnaeanLinneanLinnaean system
The idea of a clade did not exist in pre-Darwinian Linnaean taxonomy, which was based by necessity only on internal or external morphological similarities between organisms – although as it happens, many of the better known animal groups in Linnaeus' original Systema Naturae (notably among the vertebrate groups) do represent clades.
Linnaean name also has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus (personally), such as Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758, or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature (as opposed to a modernistic clade name).

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
A clade (from, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
The most commonly accepted location of the root of the tree of life is between a monophyletic domain Bacteria and a clade formed by Archaea and Eukaryota of what is referred to as the "traditional tree of life" based on several molecular studies.

Fungus

Fungifungalnecrotrophic
Some of the relationships between organisms that the molecular biology arm of cladistics has revealed are that fungi are closer relatives to animals than they are to plants, archaea are now considered different from bacteria, and multicellular organisms may have evolved from archaea.
Molecular phylogenies, inferred from rRNA sequences in ribosomes, suggest that the Chytrids are a basal group divergent from the other fungal phyla, consisting of four major clades with suggestive evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly.

Cladistics

cladisticcladistic analysisclade
German biologist Emil Hans Willi Hennig (1913 – 1976) is considered to be the founder of cladistics. The science that tries to reconstruct phylogenetic trees and thus discover clades is called phylogenetics or cladistics, the latter term coined by Ernst Mayr (1965), derived from "clade".
Cladistics (, from Greek κλάδος, kládos, "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

Convergent evolution

convergentconvergenceanalogous
The phenomenon of convergent evolution is, however, responsible for many cases where there are misleading similarities in the morphology of groups that evolved from different lineages.
Taxa which do share ancestry are part of the same clade; cladistics seeks to arrange them according to their degree of relatedness to describe their phylogeny.

Monophyly

monophyleticmonophyletic groupnon-monophyletic
Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor (or more precisely ancestral population).

Julian Huxley

Sir Julian HuxleyJulian Sorell HuxleyJulian S. Huxley
The term "clade" was coined in 1957 by the biologist Julian Huxley to refer to the result of cladogenesis, a concept Huxley borrowed from Bernhard Rensch.
Ironically, it was Huxley who invented the terms clade and grades.

Phylogenetic nomenclature

stem-based taxonphylogenetic taxonomyphylogenetic classification
For these and other reasons, phylogenetic nomenclature has been developed; it is still controversial.
Phylogenetic nomenclature ties names to clades, groups consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants.

Cladogram

cladogramscladistic analysiscladistic interpretation
The results of phylogenetic/cladistic analyses are tree-shaped diagrams called cladograms; they, and all their branches, are phylogenetic hypotheses.
A cladogram uses lines that branch off in different directions ending at a clade, a group of organisms with a last common ancestor.

Basal (phylogenetics)

basalbasalmostprimitive
Each node in the tree corresponds to a clade; i.e., clade C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked to the root of D.

Ape

apesHominoideahominoid
The superfamily Hominoidea is such a group—also known as a clade.

Strepsirrhini

strepsirrhinestrepsirrhinesstrepsirhine
Although the fossil record demonstrating their initial radiation across the Northern Hemisphere is very detailed, the fossil record from the tropics (where primates most likely first developed) is very sparse, particularly around the time that primates and other major clades of eutherian mammals first appeared.

Crown group

stem groupstemcrown
It is thus a clade, a group consisting of a species and all its descendants.

Paraphyly

paraphyleticembedded*
A paraphyletic group cannot be a clade, or monophyletic group, which is any group of species that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants.

Prosimian

Prosimiipro-simiansprosimians
Being an evolutionary grade rather than a clade, the prosimians are united by being primates with traits otherwise found in non-primate mammals.

Phylogenetics

phylogeneticphylogenetic analysisphylogenetically
The science that tries to reconstruct phylogenetic trees and thus discover clades is called phylogenetics or cladistics, the latter term coined by Ernst Mayr (1965), derived from "clade".

Taxonomic rank

superfamilysuperfamiliesrank
In the latter, only taxa associated with a rank can be named, yet there are not enough ranks to name a long series of nested clades.
Ideally, a taxon is intended to represent a clade, that is, the phylogeny of the organisms under discussion, but this is not a requirement.