Classical conditioning

conditioningPavlovian conditioningPavlovianconditionedconditioned reflexconditioned stimulusunconditioned stimulusconditioned responsePavlov's dogrespondent conditioning
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).wikipedia
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Ivan Pavlov

PavlovIvan Petrovich PavlovPavlovian
Classical conditioning was first studied in detail by Ivan Pavlov through experiments with dogs and published in 1897. The best-known and most thorough early work on classical conditioning was done by Ivan Pavlov, although Edwin Twitmyer published some related findings a year earlier.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (26 September 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

Learning

associative learninglearnlearning process
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation, or classical conditioning, operant conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.

Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior.
While Watson and Ivan Pavlov investigated the stimulus-response procedures of classical conditioning, Skinner assessed the controlling nature of consequences and also its potential effect on the antecedents (or discriminative stimuli) that emits behavior; the technique became known as operant conditioning.

Robert A. Rescorla

Robert Rescorla
Robert A. Rescorla provided a clear summary of this change in thinking, and its implications, in his 1988 article "Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is".
Robert A. Rescorla (born May 9, 1940) is an American psychologist who specializes in the involvement of cognitive processes in classical conditioning focusing on animal learning and behavior.

Fear conditioning

associative fear memoryauditory fear trainingconditioned
It was also thought that repeated pairings are necessary for conditioning to emerge, but many CRs can be learned with a single trial, especially in fear conditioning and taste aversion learning. Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis, a sea-slug.
In the vocabulary of classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus or context is the "conditional stimulus" (CS), the aversive stimulus is the "unconditional stimulus" (US), and the fear is the "conditional response" (CR).

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior.
Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin, and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.

Spontaneous recovery

hypermnesiahypermnesicimproved recall
This is demonstrated by spontaneous recovery – when there is a sudden appearance of the (CR) after extinction occurs – and other related phenomena (see "Recovery from extinction" below).
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning.

Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapy
Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior.
Behavioral therapy approaches relied on principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning theory to bring about therapeutic change in observable symptoms.

Animal cognition

animal intelligenceanimal learningintelligence
This method has also been used to study timing ability in animals (see Animal cognition).
During this time there was considerable progress in understanding simple associations; notably, around 1930 the differences between Thorndike's instrumental (or operant) conditioning and Pavlov's classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning were clarified, first by Miller and Kanorski, and then by B. F. Skinner.

Edwin B. Twitmyer

Edwin Twitmyer
The best-known and most thorough early work on classical conditioning was done by Ivan Pavlov, although Edwin Twitmyer published some related findings a year earlier.
He is a little-known figure in the history of psychology, but he independently discovered classical conditioning at approximately the same time as the famous Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, who is normally given credit for this achievement.

Conditioned taste aversion

taste aversionstimulus generalizationaversion learning
It was also thought that repeated pairings are necessary for conditioning to emerge, but many CRs can be learned with a single trial, especially in fear conditioning and taste aversion learning.
It is an example of classical or "Pavlovian" conditioning.

Eyeblink conditioning

eye blink conditioning
Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis, a sea-slug.
Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a form of classical conditioning that has been used extensively to study neural structures and mechanisms that underlie learning and memory.

Motivation

intrinsic motivationmotivationalmotives
The speed of conditioning depends on a number of factors, such as the nature and strength of both the CS and the US, previous experience and the animal's motivational state.
In classical (or respondent) conditioning, behaviour is understood as responses triggered by certain environmental or physical stimuli.

External inhibition

External inhibition may be observed if a strong or unfamiliar stimulus is presented just before, or at the same time as, the CS.
This effect was first observed in Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning studies where the dogs would salivate less (conditioned response) when presented with the sound of the tuning fork (conditioned stimulus) in the distracting context of a passing truck (external stimulus).

Disinhibition

disinhibiteddisinhibitoryloss of inhibition
Within the realm of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, disinhibition is a fundamental process of associative learning characterized by the recurrence of a conditioned response after extinction trials have eliminated said response elicited by the presentation of a novel stimulus.

Aversion therapy

an aversive procedureaversion conditioningaversive therapies
Some therapies associated with classical conditioning are aversion therapy, systematic desensitization and flooding.
This conditioning is intended to cause the patient to associate the stimulus with unpleasant sensations with the intention of quelling the targeted (sometimes compulsive) behavior.

Flooding (psychology)

floodingFlooding therapyradical exposure therapy
Some therapies associated with classical conditioning are aversion therapy, systematic desensitization and flooding.
Flooding, sometimes referred to as in vivo exposure therapy, is a form of behavior therapy and desensitization—or exposure therapy—based on the principles of respondent conditioning.

Reward system

rewardrewardingrewards
Pavlovian-instrumental transfer is a phenomenon that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS, also known as a "cue") that has been associated with rewarding or aversive stimuli via classical conditioning alters motivational salience and operant behavior.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positively-valenced emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

Systematic desensitization

systematic desensitisationgraduated exposure therapyphobias
Some therapies associated with classical conditioning are aversion therapy, systematic desensitization and flooding.
It is used in the field of clinical psychology to help many people effectively overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders that are based on classical conditioning, and shares the same elements of both cognitive-behavioral therapy and applied behavior analysis.

Shaping (psychology)

shapingautoshapingshape
Most relevant experiments have used the classical conditioning procedure, although instrumental (operant) conditioning experiments have also been used, and the strength of classical conditioning is often measured through its operant effects, as in conditioned suppression (see Phenomena section above) and autoshaping.
Autoshaping (sometimes called sign tracking) is any of a variety of experimental procedures used to study classical conditioning.

Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior. Pavlovian-instrumental transfer is a phenomenon that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS, also known as a "cue") that has been associated with rewarding or aversive stimuli via classical conditioning alters motivational salience and operant behavior. Most relevant experiments have used the classical conditioning procedure, although instrumental (operant) conditioning experiments have also been used, and the strength of classical conditioning is often measured through its operant effects, as in conditioned suppression (see Phenomena section above) and autoshaping.
Although operant and classical conditioning both involve behaviors controlled by environmental stimuli, they differ in nature.

Reflex

reflexesreflex actioninvoluntary action
Usually, the conditioned stimulus is a neutral stimulus (e.g., the sound of a tuning fork), the unconditioned stimulus is biologically potent (e.g., the taste of food) and the unconditioned response (UR) to the unconditioned stimulus is an unlearned reflex response (e.g., salivation).

Brave New World

Brave New World Revisitedsomanovel of the same name
In the 1932 novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, conditioning plays a key role in the maintenance of social peace, especially in maintaining the caste system upon which society is based.
Largely set in a futuristic World State, inhabited by genetically modified citizens and an intelligence-based social hierarchy, the novel anticipates huge scientific advancements in reproductive technology, sleep-learning, psychological manipulation and classical conditioning that are combined to make a dystopian society which is challenged by only a single individual: the story's protagonist.

Phobia

phobiasphobicfear
The influence of classical conditioning can be seen in emotional responses such as phobia, disgust, nausea, anger, and sexual arousal.
Much of the progress in understanding the acquisition of fear responses in phobias can be attributed to classical conditioning (Pavlovian model).

Stimulus (psychology)

stimulusstimuliresponse
Pavlovian-instrumental transfer is a phenomenon that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS, also known as a "cue") that has been associated with rewarding or aversive stimuli via classical conditioning alters motivational salience and operant behavior.
Within such a framework several kinds of stimuli have been distinguished (see also classical conditioning):