Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberalsliberalismclassically liberalclassical-liberalclassic liberalismclassicalclassic liberalmarket liberal
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.wikipedia
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History of liberalism

branchliberalismearly liberalism
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
In this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fascism and communism.

John Locke

LockeLockeanLocke, John
Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus, and David Ricardo.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

Economic freedom

economic rightseconomiceconomic liberty
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
One approach to economic freedom comes from classical liberal and libertarian traditions emphasizing free markets, free trade, and private property under free enterprise.

Jean-Baptiste Say

SayJ. B. SayJ.B. Say
Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus, and David Ricardo.
Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism.

Conservatism

conservativeconservativessocial conservatives
Core beliefs of classical liberals included new ideas—which departed from both the older conservative idea of society as a family and from the later sociological concept of society as complex set of social networks.
Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.

Friedrich Hayek

HayekF. A. HayekF.A. Hayek
Friedrich Hayek identified two different traditions within classical liberalism: the "British tradition" and the "French tradition".
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 1899 – 23 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Anglo-Austrian economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

Right-libertarianism

right-libertarianlibertarianright-wing libertarian
Right-libertarianism is a modern form of neo-classical liberalism.
Right-libertarianism includes anarcho-capitalism and laissez-faire minarchist liberalism.

Progress

social progressscientific progressprogressive
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism, and progress.
Modernization was promoted by classical liberals in the 19th and 20th centuries, who called for the rapid modernization of the economy and society to remove the traditional hindrances to free markets and free movements of people.

Individual and group rights

individual rightscollective rightsindividual right
Despite Smith’s resolute recognition of the importance and value of labor and of laborers, they selectively criticized labour's group rights being pursued at the expense of individual rights while accepting corporations' rights, which led to inequality of bargaining power.
In the political views of classical liberals and some right-libertarians, the role of the government is solely to identify, protect, and enforce the natural rights of the individual while attempting to assure just remedies for transgressions.

Alexis de Tocqueville

Tocquevillede Tocquevillede Tocqueville, Alexis
Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition: Hayek saw the Frenchmen Montesquieu, Benjamin Constant and Alexis de Tocqueville as belonging to the "British tradition" and the British Thomas Hobbes, Joseph Priestley, Richard Price and Thomas Paine as belonging to the "French tradition".
Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated parliamentary government, but he was skeptical of the extremes of democracy.

Welfare state

welfarewelfare statessocial state
They were critical of what would come to be the idea of the welfare state as interfering in a free market.
British liberals supported a capitalist economy and in the nineteenth-century had principally been concerned with issues of free trade (see classical liberalism), but by the turn of the twentieth century they shifted away from laissez faire economics and began to favor pro-active social legislation to assure equal opportunity for all citizens (and to counteract the appeal of the Labour Party).

Economic liberalism

economically liberaleconomic liberalliberal
Despite Smith’s resolute recognition of the importance and value of labor and of laborers, they selectively criticized labour's group rights being pursued at the expense of individual rights while accepting corporations' rights, which led to inequality of bargaining power. Closely related to economic liberalism, it developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century as a response to urbanization and to the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States.
Today, economic liberalism is associated with classical liberalism, neoliberalism, propertarian libertarianism and some schools of conservatism.

Herbert Spencer

SpencerSpencerianSpencer, Herbert
By the 1870s, Herbert Spencer and other classical liberals concluded that historical development was turning against them.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

William Graham Sumner

William SumnerWilliam G. Sumner
Herbert Spencer in Britain and William Graham Sumner were the leading neo-classical liberal theorists of the 19th century.
William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.

The Economist

EconomistEconomist magazineEconomist Intelligence Unit
From around 1840 to 1860, laissez-faire advocates of the Manchester School and writers in The Economist were confident that their early victories would lead to a period of expanding economic and personal liberty and world peace, but would face reversals as government intervention and activity continued to expand from the 1850s.
The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, globalisation, free immigration, and cultural liberalism (such as supporting legal recognition for same-sex marriage or drug liberalisation).

Laissez-faire

laissez fairelaissez-faire capitalismfree-market capitalism
Hayek also rejected the label laissez-faire as originating from the French tradition and alien to the beliefs of Hume and Smith.
The doctrine of laissez-faire became an integral part of nineteenth-century European liberalism.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
Classical liberalism in Britain developed from Whiggery and radicalism, was also heavily influenced by French physiocracy and represented a new political ideology.
By the 1770s the ideas of Adam Smith, a founder of classical liberalism became important.

Marquis de Condorcet

CondorcetNicolas de CondorcetAntoine Nicolas Caritat de Condorcet
The French tradition included Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Marquis de Condorcet, the Encyclopedists and the Physiocrats.
Condorcet took a leading role when the French Revolution swept France in 1789, hoping for a rationalist reconstruction of society, and championed many liberal causes.

Adam Smith

SmithAdam Smith’sNeo-Smithian
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism, and progress. Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, was to provide most of the ideas of economics, at least until the publication of John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy in 1848.

Classical economics

classical economistsclassicalclassical economist
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism, and progress.
Classical liberalism

Utilitarianism

utilitarianutilitariansutilitarian ethics
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism, and progress.
Classical liberalism

Social liberalism

social liberalsocial-liberalliberal
The term "classical liberalism" has often been applied in retrospect to distinguish earlier 19th-century liberalism from social liberalism.
By the end of the 19th century, the principles of classical liberalism were challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing awareness of poverty and unemployment present within modern industrial cities and also by the agitation of organized labour.

Conservatism in the United States

conservativeconservativesConservatism
James Kurth, Robert E. Lerner, John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge and several other political scholars have argued that classical liberalism still exists today, but in the form of American conservatism.
Conservative philosophy is also derived in part from the classical liberal tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, which advocated for laissez-faire economics (also called economic freedom and deregulation).

John Stuart Mill

MillJ. S. MillJS Mill
Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, was to provide most of the ideas of economics, at least until the publication of John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy in 1848.
One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy.