Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberalsliberalismclassical-liberalclassically liberalClassic liberalismclassic liberalclassicalliberals
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.wikipedia
1,084 Related Articles

History of liberalism

classical liberalClassical liberalismliberalism
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
In this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fascism and communism.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

Conservatism

conservativeconservativesReligious conservatism
Core beliefs of classical liberals included new ideas—which departed from both the older conservative idea of society as a family and from the later sociological concept of society as a complex set of social networks.
Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
The diversity of liberalism can be gleaned from the numerous adjectives that liberal thinkers and movements have attached to the very term "liberalism", including classical, egalitarian, economic, social, welfare state, ethical, humanist, deontological, perfectionist, democratic and institutional, to name a few.

Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich von HayekF. A. HayekF.A. Hayek
Friedrich Hayek identified two different traditions within classical liberalism, namely the British tradition and the French tradition.
A. Hayek''', was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defence of classical liberalism.

Progress

social progressscientific progressIdea of Progress
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism and progress.
Modernization was promoted by classical liberals in the 19th and 20th centuries, who called for the rapid modernization of the economy and society to remove the traditional hindrances to free markets and free movements of people.

Individual and group rights

individual rightscollective rightsindividual right
In the political views of classical liberals and some right-libertarians, the role of the government is solely to identify, protect, and enforce the natural rights of the individual while attempting to assure just remedies for transgressions.

Benjamin Constant

ConstantBeijamin ConstantHenri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque
Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition since he saw the Frenchmen Montesquieu, Benjamin Constant and Alexis de Tocqueville as belonging to the British tradition and the British Thomas Hobbes, Joseph Priestley, Richard Price and Thomas Paine as belonging to the French tradition.
He was a fervent classical liberal of the early 19th century, who influenced the Trienio Liberal movement in Spain, the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, the Greek War of Independence, the November Uprising in Poland, the Belgian Revolution, and liberalism in Brazil and Mexico.

Right-libertarianism

right-libertarianright-libertarianslibertarian
Right-libertarianism is a modern form of neo-classical liberalism.
While influenced by classical liberal thought, with some viewing right-libertarianism as an outgrowth or as a variant of it, there are significant differences.

Alexis de Tocqueville

Tocquevillede TocquevilleAlexis de Toqueville
Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition since he saw the Frenchmen Montesquieu, Benjamin Constant and Alexis de Tocqueville as belonging to the British tradition and the British Thomas Hobbes, Joseph Priestley, Richard Price and Thomas Paine as belonging to the French tradition.
Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated parliamentary government and was skeptical of the extremes of democracy.

Economic liberalism

economically liberalliberaleconomic liberal
Closely related to economic liberalism, it developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century as a response to urbanisation and to the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States.
Today, economic liberalism is associated with classical liberalism, neoliberalism, right-libertarianism and some schools of conservatism such as liberal conservatism.

Laissez-faire

laissez fairelaissez-faire capitalismlaissez-faire economics
Hayek also rejected the label laissez-faire as originating from the French tradition and alien to the beliefs of Hume and Smith.
The doctrine of laissez-faire became an integral part of 19th-century European liberalism.

The Economist

EconomistEconomist magazineLondon Economist
From around 1840 to 1860, laissez-faire advocates of the Manchester School and writers in The Economist were confident that their early victories would lead to a period of expanding economic and personal liberty and world peace, but would face reversals as government intervention and activity continued to expand from the 1850s.
The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, globalisation, free immigration and cultural liberalism (such as supporting legal recognition for same-sex marriage or drug liberalisation).

Herbert Spencer

SpencerSpencerianSpencer, Herbert
By the 1870s, Herbert Spencer and other classical liberals concluded that historical development was turning against them.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

William Graham Sumner

William G. SumnerWilliam SumnerSumner
Herbert Spencer in Britain and William Graham Sumner were the leading neo-classical liberal theorists of the 19th century.
William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
Classical liberalism in Britain began under Whigs and radicals, and was heavily influenced by French physiocracy.
By the 1770s the ideas of Adam Smith, a founder of classical liberalism became important.

Marquis de Condorcet

CondorcetNicolas de CondorcetCaritat
The French tradition included Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Marquis de Condorcet, the Encyclopedists and the Physiocrats.
Condorcet took a leading role when the French Revolution swept France in 1789, hoping for a rationalist reconstruction of society, and championed many liberal causes.

Adam Smith

SmithA SmithAdam Smith’s
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism and progress. Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, was to provide most of the ideas of economics, at least until the publication of John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy in 1848.

Classical economics

classical economistsclassicalclassical economist
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism and progress.

Utilitarianism

utilitarianutilitariansutilitarian ethics
It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism and progress.

Social liberalism

social liberalsocial-liberalliberal
The term classical liberalism has often been applied in retrospect to distinguish earlier 19th-century liberalism from social liberalism.
By the end of the 19th century, the principles of classical liberalism were challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing awareness of poverty and unemployment present within modern industrial cities and also by the agitation of organised labour.

Conservatism in the United States

conservativeconservativesConservatism
James Kurth, Robert E. Lerner, John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge and several other political scholars have argued that classical liberalism still exists today, but in the form of American conservatism.
Conservative philosophy is also derived in part from the classical liberal tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, which advocated for laissez-faire economics (i.e. economic freedom and deregulation).

John Stuart Mill

MillJ.S. MillJ. S. Mill
Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, was to provide most of the ideas of economics, at least until the publication of John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy in 1848.
One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy.

The Nation

NationThe Nation MagazineNation Magazine
Leading magazine The Nation espoused liberalism every week starting in 1865 under the influential editor Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831–1902).
Thereafter, he remade The Nation into a current affairs publication and gave it an anti-classical liberal orientation.

John Maynard Keynes

KeynesMaynard KeynesJ. M. Keynes
The evolution from classical to social/welfare liberalism is for example reflected in Britain in the evolution of the thought of John Maynard Keynes.
Keynesian ideas became so popular that some scholars point to Keynes as representing the ideals of modern liberalism, as Adam Smith represented the ideals of classical liberalism.