Classical music

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Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.wikipedia
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Classical period (music)

ClassicalClassical periodClassical era
While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820) and Romantic (1810–1910) eras. The first symphonies were produced during the Classical period, beginning in the mid 18th century, the symphony ensemble and the compositions became prominent features of Classical-period music.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820.

Symphony

symphoniessymphonicsymphonic works
In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.

Musical notation

music notationnotationnotated
European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century. The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score.
Even in the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; for example, for professional classical music performers, sheet music using staves and noteheads is the most common way of notating music, but for professional country music session musicians, the Nashville Number System is the main method.

Opera

opera singeroperasoperatic
In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.
Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition.

Medieval music

medievalMiddle Agesmusic
The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820) and Romantic (1810–1910) eras.
Medieval music was an era of Western music, including liturgical music (also known as sacred) used for the church, and secular music, non-religious music.

Johann Sebastian Bach

BachJ.S. BachJ. S. Bach
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age.
Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Western art musical canon.

Ludwig van Beethoven

BeethovenLudwig von BeethovenBeethoven, Ludwig van
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age.
A crucial figure in the transition between the classical and romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognized and influential musicians of this period, and is considered to be one of the greatest composers of all time.

Baroque music

BaroqueBaroque eraBaroque period
The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820) and Romantic (1810–1910) eras.
Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
The first symphonies were produced during the Classical period, beginning in the mid 18th century, the symphony ensemble and the compositions became prominent features of Classical-period music. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ).
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of Western classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon, and percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, cymbals, and mallet percussion instruments each grouped in sections.

Popular music

popularpoppopular song
European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century. The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score.
Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners mainly from hearing the music (in contrast with classical music, in which many musicians learn pieces from sheet music); its appeal to diverse listeners, its treatment as a marketplace commodity in a capitalist context, and other factors.

Orchestration

orchestratororchestratedorchestrations
Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration, counterpoint, harmony, musical development, rhythm, phrasing, texture, and form.
In classical music, composers have historically orchestrated their own music.

Musical development

developmentdevelopeddevelopment section
Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration, counterpoint, harmony, musical development, rhythm, phrasing, texture, and form.
In classical music, musical development is a process by which a musical idea is communicated in the course of a composition.

Early music

earlyearly-musicearlier music
The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820) and Romantic (1810–1910) eras.
Early music is a broad musical era in the history of Western art music.

Art music

serious musicartclassical music
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
"Art music" is mostly used to refer to music descending from the tradition of Western classical music.

Counterpoint

contrapuntalcontrapuntallydissonant counterpoint
Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration, counterpoint, harmony, musical development, rhythm, phrasing, texture, and form.
It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque.

Historically informed performance

performance practicehistorically informed musical performanceauthentic performance
Performance of classical music repertoire requires a proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, harmonic principles, strong ear training (to correct and adjust pitches by ear), knowledge of performance practice (e.g., Baroque ornamentation), and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom expected for a given composer or musical work (e.g., a Brahms symphony or a Mozart concerto).
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.

Scherzo

scherziBadineriescherzo and trio
A scherzo (, UK also ; ; plural scherzos or scherzi), in western classical music, is a short composition – sometimes a movement from a larger work such as a symphony or a sonata.

Musical ensemble

bandgroupensemble
Performance of classical music repertoire requires a proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, harmonic principles, strong ear training (to correct and adjust pitches by ear), knowledge of performance practice (e.g., Baroque ornamentation), and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom expected for a given composer or musical work (e.g., a Brahms symphony or a Mozart concerto).
In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo (harpsichord and cello) and one or more singers.

Musical improvisation

improvisationimprovised musicimprovised
Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era.
Sometimes musical ideas in improvisation are spontaneous, but may be based on chord changes in classical music and many other kinds of music.

Double bass

bassupright bassacoustic bass
However, many concert bands use a double bass.
It is a standard member of the orchestra's string section, as well as the concert band, and is featured in concertos, solo, and chamber music in Western classical music.

Sheet music

scoremusical scorescores
The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score.
Sheet music is the basic form in which Western classical music is notated so that it can be learned and performed by solo singers or instrumentalists or musical ensembles.

String instrument

stringsstringstring instruments
The symphony orchestra includes members of the string, woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments.
Bowed instruments include the string section instruments of the Classical music orchestra (violin, viola, cello and double bass) and a number of other instruments (e.g., viols and gambas used in early music from the Baroque music era and fiddles used in many types of folk music).

Organ (music)

organchurch organorganist
They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ).
Subsequently it re-emerged as a secular and recital instrument in the Classical music tradition.

Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ).
The piano is widely employed in classical, jazz, traditional and popular music for solo and ensemble performances, accompaniment, and for composing, songwriting and rehearsals.

Period (music)

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These movements can then be further broken down into a hierarchy of smaller units: first sections, then periods, and finally phrases.
In Western art music or Classical music, a period is a group of phrases consisting usually of at least one antecedent phrase and one consequent phrase totaling about 8 bars in length (though this varies depending on meter and tempo).