Classical period (music)

ClassicalClassical periodClassical eraClassical music eraclassical musicClassicismViennese classicismclassical styleClassical music periodclassical-era
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820.wikipedia
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Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820.
While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods.

Baroque music

BaroqueBaroque eraBaroque period
The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods.
This era followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era.

Sonata

sonatassonata formClassical sonata
The main kinds of instrumental music were the sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony (performed by an orchestra) and the solo concerto, which featured a virtuoso solo performer playing a solo work for violin, piano, flute, or another instrument, accompanied by an orchestra.
The term evolved through the history of music, designating a variety of forms until the Classical era, when it took on increasing importance.

String quartet

string quartetsquartetstring ensemble
The main kinds of instrumental music were the sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony (performed by an orchestra) and the solo concerto, which featured a virtuoso solo performer playing a solo work for violin, piano, flute, or another instrument, accompanied by an orchestra.
String quartet composition flourished in the Classical era: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert each wrote several.

Joseph Haydn

HaydnFranz Joseph HaydnJ. Haydn
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Franz Joseph Haydn (31 March 1732 – 31 May 1809) was an Austrian composer of the Classical period.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

MozartW. A. MozartW.A. Mozart
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before and the orchestra increased in size, range, and power.
Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.

Ludwig van Beethoven

BeethovenLudwig von BeethovenBeethoven, Ludwig van
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
A crucial figure in the transition between the classical and romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognized and influential musicians of this period, and is considered to be one of the greatest composers of all time.

Franz Schubert

SchubertFranz Peter SchubertSchubert’s
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Franz Schubert is also a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, Gioachino Rossini, Carl Maria von Weber and Niccolò Paganini.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 1797 – 19 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.

Antonio Salieri

SalieriAntionio SalieriAnton Salieri
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Antonio Salieri (,, ; 18 August 1750 – 7 May 1825) was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher.

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach

C. P. E. BachC.P.E. BachCarl Philipp Emanuel
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788), also formerly spelled Karl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.

Luigi Boccherini

BoccheriniBoccherini, LuigiB'''o'''ccherini
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini (, also, ; February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was an Italian composer and cellist of the Classical era whose music retained a courtly and galante style even while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers.

Christoph Willibald Gluck

GluckChristoph Willibald von GluckGluck, Christoph Willibald
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714 – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.

Johann Nepomuk Hummel

HummelJohann HummelJohan Nepomuk Hummel
Franz Schubert is also a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, Gioachino Rossini, Carl Maria von Weber and Niccolò Paganini.
His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era.

Luigi Cherubini

CherubiniChérubiniL. Cherubini
Franz Schubert is also a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, Gioachino Rossini, Carl Maria von Weber and Niccolò Paganini.
Luigi Cherubini (, ; 8 or 14 September 1760 – 15 March 1842) was an Italian Classical and pre-Romantic composer.

Johann Christian Bach

J. C. BachJ.C. BachJohann Christian
The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, Leopold Mozart, Johann Christian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a German composer of the Classical era, the eighteenth child of Johann Sebastian Bach, and the youngest of his eleven sons.

Opera

opera singeroperasoperatic
Vocal music, such as songs for a singer and piano (notably the work of Schubert), choral works, and opera (a staged dramatic work for singers and orchestra) were also important during this period.
Italian libretti remained dominant in the classical period as well, for example in the operas of Mozart, who wrote in Vienna near the century's close.

Fortepiano

fortepianistforte-pianofortepianos
The harpsichord was replaced as the main keyboard instrument by the piano (or fortepiano).
Throughout the Classical era, even when the more flexible knee levers or pedals had been installed, the lifting of all the dampers was used primarily as a coloristic device.

Sonata form

sonata-allegro formsonata-allegrodevelopment
The Classical period also saw the gradual development of sonata form, a set of structural principles for music that reconciled the Classical preference for melodic material with harmonic development, which could be applied across musical genres.
It has been used widely since the middle of the 18th century (the early Classical period).

Cello

cellistvioloncellocellos
This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic groundwork of a piece of music, typically played by a keyboard (harpsichord or organ) and usually accompanied by a varied group of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol, and theorbo.
From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution.

Chord (music)

chordchordschordal
This move meant that chords became a much more prevalent feature of music, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part.
In the Baroque period, the dominant seventh proper was introduced and was in constant use in the Classical and Romantic periods.

Double bass

bassupright bassacoustic bass
This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic groundwork of a piece of music, typically played by a keyboard (harpsichord or organ) and usually accompanied by a varied group of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol, and theorbo.
In the Classical era, the double bass typically doubled the cello part an octave below, occasionally requiring descent to C below the E of the four-string double bass.

Domenico Scarlatti

ScarlattiDomenicoD. Scarlatti
The Italian composer Domenico Scarlatti was an important figure in the transition from Baroque to Classical style.
He is classified primarily as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style and he was one of the few Baroque composers to transition into the classical period.

Oboe

oboesoboisthautbois
The harpsichord or pipe organ basso continuo role in orchestra fell out of use between 1750 and 1775, leaving the string section woodwinds became a self-contained section, consisting of clarinets, oboes, flutes and bassoons.
The Classical period brought a regular oboe whose bore was gradually narrowed, and the instrument became outfitted with several keys, among them those for the notes D, F, and G. A key similar to the modern octave key was also added called the "slur key," though it was at first used more like the "flick" keys on the modern German bassoon.

Harpsichord

cembaloharpsichordsclavecin
The harpsichord was replaced as the main keyboard instrument by the piano (or fortepiano). This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic groundwork of a piece of music, typically played by a keyboard (harpsichord or organ) and usually accompanied by a varied group of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol, and theorbo. The harpsichord or pipe organ basso continuo role in orchestra fell out of use between 1750 and 1775, leaving the string section woodwinds became a self-contained section, consisting of clarinets, oboes, flutes and bassoons.
Two of the most prominent composers of the Classical era, Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791), wrote harpsichord music.