Classical republicanism

civic humanismclassical republicanrepublicancivic republicanismclassical republiccivic republicancivic valuesrepublicanismclassical form of republicanismrepublican ideals
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.wikipedia
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Republicanism

republicanrepublicansrepublican government
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
In Ancient Greece, several philosophers and historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
Matteo Palmieri (1406–1475), another humanist, is most known for his work Della vita civile ("On Civic Life"; printed 1528), which advocated civic humanism, and for his influence in refining the Tuscan vernacular to the same level as Latin.

Civil society

civil society organizationscivil societiesglobal civil society
Classical republicanism is built around concepts such as civil society, civic virtue and mixed government.
The concept of civil society in its pre-modern classical republican understanding is usually connected to the early-modern thought of Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century.

Hans Baron

One variant of classical republicanism is known as "civic humanism", a term first employed by the German scholar of late medieval and early modern Italian history, Hans Baron.
His main contribution to the historiography of the period was to introduce in 1928 the term civic humanism (denoting most if not all of the content of classical republicanism).

Philip Pettit

Philip Noel PettitPettit, PhilipProf Philip Pettit
Leading exponents of this dual concept are Hannah Arendt, J. G. A. Pocock, Quentin Skinner, and Philip Pettit.
Pettit defends a version of civic republicanism in political philosophy.

Hannah Arendt

ArendtArendt, HannahH Arendt
Leading exponents of this dual concept are Hannah Arendt, J. G. A. Pocock, Quentin Skinner, and Philip Pettit.
While Arendt never developed a coherent political theory and her writing does not easily lend itself to categorization, the tradition of thought most closely identified with Arendt is that of civic republicanism, from Aristotle to Tocqueville.

Leonardo Bruni

BruniLeonardus Bruni AretinusBruni, Leonardo
Moreover, Leonardo Bruni (1370–1444) asserted, based on Tacitus's pronouncements in the introduction to the Histories, that republican government made better men, whereas monarchy was inimical to human virtue (see Tacitean studies).
Bruni was the pupil of political and cultural leader Coluccio Salutati, whom he succeeded as Chancellor of Florence, and under whose tutelage he developed his ideation of civic humanism.

Civic virtue

civiccivilCivility
Classical republicanism is built around concepts such as civil society, civic virtue and mixed government.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
Classical republicanism became extremely popular in Classicism and during the Enlightenment, playing a central role in the thought of political philosophy since Hobbes, through John Locke, Giambattista Vico, Montesquieu, Rousseau, until Kant.
His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Tacitean studies

Tacitismstudy of TacitusTacitean
Moreover, Leonardo Bruni (1370–1444) asserted, based on Tacitus's pronouncements in the introduction to the Histories, that republican government made better men, whereas monarchy was inimical to human virtue (see Tacitean studies).
At the beginning of the 15th century, following the expulsion of the Medici from Florence, their return, and the foreign invasions of Italy, Tacitus returned to prominence among the theorists of classical republicanism.

Political philosophy of Immanuel Kant

KantKant's political philosophy
The political philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) favoured a classical republican approach.

James Harrington (author)

James HarringtonHarringtonJames Harington
James Harrington (or Harington) (3 January 1611 – 11 September 1677) was an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).

Social contract

social contract theorycontractarianismcontractarian
Since Thomas Hobbes, at the core of republicanism is the concept of the social contract.

Republicanism in the United States

republicanismRepublicanAmerican republicanism
Indeed, Machiavelli's innovation, addition, or transformation of classical republicanism more likely marks a turning point, and the dawn of modern republicanism; Machiavelli's particular brand of republicanism has been dubbed "rapacious republicanism" by a collection of scholars.
Country party philosophy relied heavily on the classical republicanism of Roman heritage; it celebrated the ideals of duty and virtuous citizenship in a republic.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

RousseauJean Jacques RousseauJ.-J. Rousseau
Classical republicanism became extremely popular in Classicism and during the Enlightenment, playing a central role in the thought of political philosophy since Hobbes, through John Locke, Giambattista Vico, Montesquieu, Rousseau, until Kant.
The Social Contract outlines the basis for a legitimate political order within a framework of classical republicanism.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
Classical republicanism became extremely popular in Classicism and during the Enlightenment, playing a central role in the thought of political philosophy since Hobbes, through John Locke, Giambattista Vico, Montesquieu, Rousseau, until Kant.
His classical republican theory was extended in the Science of Right, the first part of the Metaphysics of Morals (1797).

Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberals
Because liberty was an important part of republican thought, many republican thinkers were appropriated by the theory of classical liberalism.

Andrew Fletcher (patriot)

Andrew FletcherAndrew Fletcher of SaltounFletcher of Saltoun
His chief works are A Discourse of Government relating to Militias (1698), in which he argued that the royal army in Scotland should be replaced by local militias, a position of civic republican virtue which was to return a half-century later and foreshadowed the thinking of Adam Ferguson in lauding martial virtues over commercially minded polite society, which Fletcher thought enervating.

Adam Ferguson

FergusonA. Ferguson
The Essay has been seen as an innovative attempt to reclaim the tradition of civic republican citizenship in modern Britain, and an influence on the ideas of republicanism held by the American Founding Fathers.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.

Polybius

PolybiosPolyb.Polybius of Megalopolis
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.

Cicero

Marcus Tullius CiceroCiceronianTully
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.

Mixed government

Mixedmixed constitutionmixed monarchy
Classical republicanism is built around concepts such as civil society, civic virtue and mixed government.