Claus process

ClausClaus reactionClaus unitmajor focussulfur recoverySulfur recovery unit
The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.wikipedia
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Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SStink damp
The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.
This reaction is exploited in the Claus process, an important industrial method to dispose of hydrogen sulfide.

Desulfurization

desulphurizationdesulphurationdesulfurisation
The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.
These processes are of great industrial and environmental importance as they provide the bulk of sulfur used in industry (Claus process and Contact process), sulfur-free compounds that could otherwise not be used in a great number of catalytic processes, and also reduce the release of harmful sulfur compounds into the environment, particularly sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) which leads to acid rain.

Carl Friedrich Claus

Carlfriedrich ClausCarlfriedrich Clauss
First patented in 1883 by the chemist Carl Friedrich Claus, the Claus process has become the industry standard.
He patented the Claus process.

Selexol

selexol adsorbtion
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.
The Selexol process can operate selectively to recover hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide as separate streams, so that the hydrogen sulfide can be sent to either a Claus unit for conversion to elemental sulfur or to a WSA Process unit for conversion to sulfuric acid while, at the same time, the carbon dioxide can be sequestered or used for enhanced oil recovery.

Sulfur

sulphurSbrimstone
The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.

Oil refinery

oil refineriesrefineryoil refining
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.
Using the Claus process, hydrogen sulfide is afterwards transformed to elementary sulfur to be sold to the chemical industry.

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
These by-product gases may also contain hydrogen cyanide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide or ammonia.
Sulfur dioxide is the oxidising agent in the Claus process, which is conducted on a large scale in oil refineries.

Rectisol

Rectisol method
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.
The Rectisol process can operate selectively to recover hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide as separate streams, so that the hydrogen sulfide can be sent to either a Claus unit for conversion to elemental sulfur or a WSA Process unit to recover sulfuric acid, while at the same time the carbon dioxide can be sequestered or used for enhanced oil recovery.

Natural-gas processing

natural gas processingNatural Gas Liquidsnatural gas processing plants
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.
Of the processes available for these conversions, the Claus process is by far the most well known for recovering elemental sulfur, whereas the conventional Contact process and the WSA (Wet sulfuric acid process) are the most used technologies for recovering sulfuric acid.

Hydrodesulfurization

hydrotreatinghydrotreaterOil desulfurization
Hydrogen sulfide produced, for example, in the hydro-desulfurization of refinery naphthas and other petroleum oils, is converted to sulfur in Claus plants.
The hydrogen sulfide removed and recovered by the amine gas treating unit is subsequently converted to elemental sulfur in a Claus process unit or to sulfuric acid in a wet sulfuric acid process or in the conventional Contact Process.

CrystaSulf

CrystaSulf uses a modified liquid-phase Claus reaction to convert the hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) into elemental sulfur which is then removed from the process by filtration.

Aluminium oxide

aluminaaluminum oxideAl 2 O 3
The Claus reaction continues in the catalytic step with activated aluminum(III) or titanium(IV) oxide, and serves to boost the sulfur yield.
In its largest scale application, aluminium oxide is the catalyst in the Claus process for converting hydrogen sulfide waste gases into elemental sulfur in refineries.

Acid gas

Acid gasesCO 2
The removed H 2 S is most often subsequently converted to by-product elemental sulfur in a Claus process or alternatively converted to valuable sulfuric acid in a WSA Process unit.

Amine gas treating

Amine treatingamine scrubbingacid gas removal
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.
This H 2 S-rich stripped gas stream is then usually routed into a Claus process to convert it into elemental sulfur.

Sour gas

sour natural gasOff-gas from sour water stripper (SWS gas)sour
The removed H 2 S is most often subsequently converted to by-product elemental sulfur in a Claus process or it can be treated in a WSA Process unit where the by-product is sulfuric acid.

Natural gas

gasgas-firednatural-gas
The multi-step Claus process recovers sulfur from the gaseous hydrogen sulfide found in raw natural gas and from the by-product gases containing hydrogen sulfide derived from refining crude oil and other industrial processes.

Gasification

gasifierbiomass gasificationgasified
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.

Syngas

synthesis gassynthetic gascoal gas
The by-product gases mainly originate from physical and chemical gas treatment units (Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol and amine scrubbers) in refineries, natural gas processing plants and gasification or synthesis gas plants.

Hydrogen cyanide

prussic acidhydrocyanic acidHCN
These by-product gases may also contain hydrogen cyanide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide or ammonia.

Hydrocarbon

hydrocarbonsliquid hydrocarbonHC
These by-product gases may also contain hydrogen cyanide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide or ammonia.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
These by-product gases may also contain hydrogen cyanide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide or ammonia.

Naphtha

napthalighter fluidOil-gas
Hydrogen sulfide produced, for example, in the hydro-desulfurization of refinery naphthas and other petroleum oils, is converted to sulfur in Claus plants.

Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
Hydrogen sulfide produced, for example, in the hydro-desulfurization of refinery naphthas and other petroleum oils, is converted to sulfur in Claus plants. The multi-step Claus process recovers sulfur from the gaseous hydrogen sulfide found in raw natural gas and from the by-product gases containing hydrogen sulfide derived from refining crude oil and other industrial processes.

Sulfuric acid

sulphuric acidsulfuricH 2 SO 4
Sulfur is used for manufacturing sulfuric acid, medicine, cosmetics, fertilizers and rubber products.

IG Farben

I.G. FarbenI. G. FarbenI.G. Farbenindustrie
The process was later significantly modified by IG Farben.