Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausalsubordinate clauses clause structuredependent clausesfiniteindependent clausemainmain clause
In language, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.wikipedia
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Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the 'topic' of the sentence.

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).
This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences, right up to the structure of whole texts.

Dependent clause

subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
Subordinate clauses (embedded clauses, dependent clauses) are those that would be awkward or incomplete if they were alone.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand as a sentence.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.
The second element (noun phrase, adjective, or infinitive) is called a complement, which completes a clause that would not otherwise have the same meaning.

Independent clause

main clausematrix clauseindependent clauses
Main clauses (matrix clauses, independent clauses) are those that can stand alone as a sentence.
An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent.
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."

Non-finite clause

non-finitenonfinite clausefinite clause
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).
A typical finite clause consists of a finite form of the verb together with its objects and other dependents (i.e. a verb phrase or predicate), along with its subject (although in certain cases the subject is not expressed).

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. A finite clause contains a structurally central finite verb, whereas the structurally central word of a non-finite clause is often a non-finite verb.
It might seem that every grammatically complete sentence or clause must contain a finite verb.

Predicative expression

predicativepredicative adjectivepredicatively
They can function as arguments, as adjuncts, or as predicative expressions.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals). The main trait of all predicative expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a "subject", whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at times it can be the clause object.

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionssubordinating conjunction
All clause types (SV-, verb first, wh-) can function as adjuncts, although the stereotypical adjunct clause is SV and introduced by a subordinator (i.e. subordinate conjunction, e.g. after, because, before, when, etc.), e.g.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.
Clause

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
These predicative clauses are functioning just like other predicative expressions, e.g. predicative adjectives (That was good) and predicative nominals (That was the truth). They form the matrix predicate together with the copula.
The principal use of a copula is to link the subject of a clause to the predicate.

Null-subject language

null subjectnull subject languagenull-subject
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).
Even in such non-null-subject languages as English, it is standard for clauses in the imperative mood to lack explicit subjects; for example:

Gerund

gerundsfused participlegerund suffix
Gerunds are widely acknowledged to constitute non-finite clauses, and some modern grammars also judge many to-infinitives to be the structural locus of non-finite clauses.
By contrast, the term gerund has been used in the grammatical description of other languages to label verbal nouns used in a wide range of syntactic contexts and with a full range of clause elements.

PRO (linguistics)

PRObig PRO
Some theories of syntax posit the null subject PRO (i.e. pronoun) to help address the facts of control constructions, e.g.
The Extended Projection Principle (EPP) requires that all clauses have a subject.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
They can function as arguments, as adjuncts, or as predicative expressions.
An adjunct can be a single word, a phrase, or an entire clause.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
This confusion is due in part to how these concepts are employed in the phrase structure grammars of the Chomskyan tradition.
Basic clause structure is understood in terms of a binary division of the clause into subject (noun phrase NP) and predicate (verb phrase VP).

Adverbial clause

adverb clause
Adverbial clause
An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb; that is, the entire clause modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

T-unit

T-unit
More technically, a T-unit is a dominant clause and its dependent clauses: as Hunt said, it is "one main clause with all subordinate clauses attached to it" (Hunt 1965:20).

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
In language, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.

Proposition

propositionspropositionalclaim
In language, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.

Verb phrase

verb phrasesVPphrases
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Object (grammar)

objectdirect objectindirect object
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).

Nonfinite verb

non-finite verbnon-finitenon-finite forms
A finite clause contains a structurally central finite verb, whereas the structurally central word of a non-finite clause is often a non-finite verb.