Clausewikipedia
In linguistics, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
clauseclausesfinite clauseclausal clause structurefinitesubordinate clausesdependent clausesindependent clausematrix verb

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are).

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere is
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).
This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences, right up to the structure of whole texts.

Dependent clause

subordinate clausedependent clausesubordinate clauses
Subordinate clauses (embedded clauses, dependent clauses) are those that would be awkward or incomplete if they were alone.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

Independent clause

independent clausemain clausematrix clause
Main clauses (matrix clauses, independent clauses) are those that can stand alone as a sentence.
An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.

Verb

verbverbsv.
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.
The second element (noun phrase, adjective, or infinitive) is called a complement, which completes a clause that would not otherwise have the same meaning.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent.
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."

Predicative expression

predicative expressionpredicativepredicative adjective
They can function as arguments, as adjuncts, or as predicative expressions.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals).

Non-finite clause

non-finite clausenon-finitenonfinite clause
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).
A typical finite clause consists of a finite form of the verb together with its objects and other dependents (i.e. a verb phrase or predicate), along with its subject (although in certain cases the subject is not expressed).

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionscoordinating conjunction
All clause types (SV-, verb first, wh-) can function as adjuncts, although the stereotypical adjunct clause is SV and introduced by a subordinator (i.e. subordinate conjunction, e.g. after, because, before, when, etc.), e.g.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
They form the matrix predicate together with the copula.
The principal use of a copula is to link the subject of a clause to the predicate.

Finite verb

finite verbfinitefinite forms
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent.
It might seem that every grammatically complete sentence or clause must contain a finite verb.

Gerund

gerundgerundsfused participle
Gerunds are widely acknowledged to constitute non-finite clauses, and some modern grammars also judge many to-infinitives to be the structural locus of non-finite clauses.
By contrast, the term gerund has been used in the grammatical description of other languages to label verbal nouns used in a wide range of syntactic contexts and with a full range of clause elements.

PRO (linguistics)

PRObig PRO
Some theories of syntax posit the null subject PRO (i.e. pronoun) to help address the facts of control constructions, e.g.
The Extended Projection Principle (EPP) requires that all clauses have a subject.

Adverbial clause

adverbial clauseadverb clause
An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb; that is, the entire clause modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structure grammarphrase structureconstituency grammar
This confusion is due in part to how these concepts are employed in the phrase structure grammars of the Chomskyan tradition.
Basic clause structure is understood in terms of a binary division of the clause into subject (noun phrase NP) and predicate (verb phrase VP).

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
They can function as arguments, as adjuncts, or as predicative expressions.
An adjunct can be a single word, a phrase, or an entire clause.

Null-subject language

null-subject languagenull subjectnull subject language
However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit, often the case in null-subject languages if the subject is retrievable from context, but it sometimes also occurs in other languages such as English (as in imperative sentences and non-finite clauses).
Even in such non-null-subject languages as English, it is standard for clauses in the imperative mood to lack explicit subjects; for example:

T-unit

More technically, a T-unit is a dominant clause and its dependent clauses: as Hunt said, it is "one main clause with all subordinate clauses attached to it" (Hunt 1965:20).

Conscience clause (medicine)

conscience clauseconscience clausesmedical conscience rights
Conscience clauses are legal clauses attached to laws in some parts of the United States and other countries which permit pharmacists, physicians, and/or other providers of health care not to provide certain medical services for reasons of religion or conscience.

Double negative

double negativenegative concorddouble negatives
Multiple negation is the more general term referring to the occurrence of more than one negative in a clause.

Grammar

grammargrammaticalgrammatically
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

English clause syntax

frontingconditional
This article describes the syntax of clauses in the English language, that is, the ways of combining and ordering constituents such as verbs and noun phrases to form a clause.

Semicolon

semicolon;؛
A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction.

Existential clause

existential clauseexistentialexistentials
An existential clause is a clause that refers to the existence or presence of something.