Clay v. United States

Ali's legal appealconviction is overturnedlegal caseoverturned his conviction in 1971refusing
Clay v. United States, 403 U.S. 698 (1971), was Muhammad Ali's appeal of his conviction in 1967 for refusing to report for induction into the United States military forces during the Vietnam War.wikipedia
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Muhammad Ali

Cassius ClayMuhammed AliAli
Clay v. United States, 403 U.S. 698 (1971), was Muhammad Ali's appeal of his conviction in 1967 for refusing to report for induction into the United States military forces during the Vietnam War.
He appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which overturned his conviction in 1971, but he had not fought for nearly four years and lost a period of peak performance as an athlete.

Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight

Muhammad Ali's GreatestMuhammad Ali’s Greatest Fight
*Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight, a 2013 television film about the Supreme Court's deliberations on this case
Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight is a 2013 American television drama film about boxer Muhammad Ali's refusal to report for induction into the United States military during the Vietnam War, focusing on how the United States Supreme Court decided to rule in Ali's favor in the 1971 case of Clay v. United States.

John Marshall Harlan (1899–1971)

John Marshall Harlan IIJustice HarlanHarlan
However, Justice Harlan, assigned to write the majority opinion, became convinced that Ali's claim to be a conscientious objector was sincere after reading background material on Black Muslim doctrine provided by one of his law clerks.

United States Armed Forces

United States militaryU.S. militaryUS military
Clay v. United States, 403 U.S. 698 (1971), was Muhammad Ali's appeal of his conviction in 1967 for refusing to report for induction into the United States military forces during the Vietnam War.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
Clay v. United States, 403 U.S. 698 (1971), was Muhammad Ali's appeal of his conviction in 1967 for refusing to report for induction into the United States military forces during the Vietnam War. With the escalation of the Vietnam War, the test standards were lowered in November 1965 and Ali was reclassified as 1-A in February 1966, which meant he was now eligible for the draft and induction into the U.S. Army.

Conscientious objector

conscientious objectorsconscientious objectionConscientious objection throughout the world
His local draft board had rejected his application for conscientious objector classification.

Thurgood Marshall

Justice MarshallMarshallJustice Thurgood Marshall
In a unanimous 8–0 ruling (Thurgood Marshall recused himself due to his previous involvement in the case as a U.S. Department of Justice official), the United States Supreme Court reversed the conviction that had been upheld by the Fifth Circuit.

United States Department of Justice

Department of JusticeU.S. Department of JusticeJustice Department
In a unanimous 8–0 ruling (Thurgood Marshall recused himself due to his previous involvement in the case as a U.S. Department of Justice official), the United States Supreme Court reversed the conviction that had been upheld by the Fifth Circuit.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
In a unanimous 8–0 ruling (Thurgood Marshall recused himself due to his previous involvement in the case as a U.S. Department of Justice official), the United States Supreme Court reversed the conviction that had been upheld by the Fifth Circuit.

United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

5th Cir.Fifth CircuitFifth Circuit Court of Appeals
In a unanimous 8–0 ruling (Thurgood Marshall recused himself due to his previous involvement in the case as a U.S. Department of Justice official), the United States Supreme Court reversed the conviction that had been upheld by the Fifth Circuit.

United States Army

U.S. ArmyUS ArmyArmy
With the escalation of the Vietnam War, the test standards were lowered in November 1965 and Ali was reclassified as 1-A in February 1966, which meant he was now eligible for the draft and induction into the U.S. Army.

Quran

Qur'anKoranQur’an
Ali stated that "War is against the teachings of the Holy Qur'an. I'm not trying to dodge the draft. We are not supposed to take part in no wars unless declared by Allah or The Messenger. We don't take part in Christian wars or wars of any unbelievers."

Allah

GodAllāhAlmighty Allah
Ali stated that "War is against the teachings of the Holy Qur'an. I'm not trying to dodge the draft. We are not supposed to take part in no wars unless declared by Allah or The Messenger. We don't take part in Christian wars or wars of any unbelievers."

Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadMohammedMohammad
Ali stated that "War is against the teachings of the Holy Qur'an. I'm not trying to dodge the draft. We are not supposed to take part in no wars unless declared by Allah or The Messenger. We don't take part in Christian wars or wars of any unbelievers."

Viet Cong

VietcongViệt CộngNational Liberation Front
Ali also famously said in 1966: "I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong ... They never called me nigger."

Nigger

N-wordniggersracial slur
Ali also famously said in 1966: "I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong ... They never called me nigger."

Louisville, Kentucky

LouisvilleLouisville, KYLouisville Metro
Ali appealed his local (Louisville, Kentucky) draft board's rejection of his application for conscientious objector classification.

Houston

Houston, TexasHouston, TXCity of Houston
In early 1967, Ali changed his legal residence to Houston, Texas, where his appeal to be reclassified as a Muslim minister was denied 4–0 by the federal judicial district on February 20.

Texas

TXTexanState of Texas
In early 1967, Ali changed his legal residence to Houston, Texas, where his appeal to be reclassified as a Muslim minister was denied 4–0 by the federal judicial district on February 20.

Officer (armed forces)

officercommissionedofficers
An officer warned him he was committing a felony punishable by five years in prison and a fine of $10,000.

Felony

feloniesfelonfelons
An officer warned him he was committing a felony punishable by five years in prison and a fine of $10,000.

New York State Athletic Commission

NYSACNew York State Boxing CommissionNew York Boxing Commission
As a result, on that same day, the New York State Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and the World Boxing Association stripped him of his title.

World Boxing Association

WBAWBA (Super)National Boxing Association
As a result, on that same day, the New York State Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and the World Boxing Association stripped him of his title.

Grand jury

grand juriesfederal grand jurygrand juror
He was indicted by a federal grand jury on May 8 and convicted in Houston on June 20 of the criminal offence of violating the Selective Service laws by refusing to be drafted.

Military Selective Service Act

Selective Service ActSelective Service Act of 1948Universal Military Training and Service Act
He was indicted by a federal grand jury on May 8 and convicted in Houston on June 20 of the criminal offence of violating the Selective Service laws by refusing to be drafted.