A report on Internet and Client–server model

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
A computer network diagram of clients communicating with a server via the Internet
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Development of DEL was just beginning in 1969, the year that the United States Department of Defense established ARPANET (predecessor of Internet).

- Client–server model

For example, a web browser operates in a client–server application model and exchanges information with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and an application-germane data structure, such as the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet

Server (computing)

3 links

Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet
Wikimedia Foundation rackmount servers in racks on a data center
First WWW server located at CERN with its original sticker that says: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
A network based on the client–server model where multiple individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
A rack-mountable server with the top cover removed to reveal internal components
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3; a computer server appliance (2002); running Cobalt Linux (a customized version of Red Hat Linux, using the 2.2 Linux kernel), complete with the Apache web server.

This architecture is called the client–server model.

In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".

PC clients communicating via network with a web server serving static content only.

Web server

1 links

Computer software and underlying hardware that accepts requests via HTTP or its secure variant HTTPS.

Computer software and underlying hardware that accepts requests via HTTP or its secure variant HTTPS.

PC clients communicating via network with a web server serving static content only.
The inside and front of a Dell PowerEdge server, a computer designed to be mounted in a rack mount environment. It is often used as a web server.
Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website.
Web server farm with thousands of web servers used for super-high traffic websites.
ADSL modem running an embedded web server serving dynamic web pages used for modem configuration.
First web proposal (1989) evaluated as "vague but exciting..."
The world's first web server, a NeXT Computer workstation with Ethernet, 1990. The case label reads: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3 – a computer server appliance (2002, discontinued)
PC clients connected to a web server via Internet
PC clients communicating via network with a web server serving static and dynamic content.
Directory listing dynamically generated by a web server.
Chart:
Market share of all sites for most popular web servers 2005–2021
Chart:
Market share of all sites for most popular web servers 1995–2005

A high-traffic Internet website might handle requests with hundreds of servers that run on racks of high-speed computers.

A web server program plays the role of a server in a client–server model by implementing one or more versions of HTTP protocol, often including the HTTPS secure variant and other features and extensions that are considered useful for its planned usage.

Host (network)

1 links

Computer or other device connected to a computer network.

Computer or other device connected to a computer network.

Specifically, computers participating in the Internet are called Internet hosts.

Network hosts that participate in applications that use the client–server model of computing, are classified as server or client systems.

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system

Peer-to-peer

1 links

Distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

Distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system
A network based on the client–server model, where individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
SETI@home was established in 1999
Overlay network diagram for an unstructured P2P network, illustrating the ad hoc nature of the connections between nodes
Overlay network diagram for a structured P2P network, using a distributed hash table (DHT) to identify and locate nodes/resources
Distributed hash tables
Search results for the query "software libre", using YaCy a free distributed search engine that runs on a peer-to-peer network instead making requests to centralized index servers (like Google, Yahoo, and other corporate search engines)
Torrent file connect peers
The BitTorrent protocol: In this animation, the colored bars beneath all of the 7 clients in the upper region above represent the file being shared, with each color representing an individual piece of the file. After the initial pieces transfer from the seed (large system at the bottom), the pieces are individually transferred from client to client. The original seeder only needs to send out one copy of the file for all the clients to receive a copy.

Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client–server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided.

In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.