Climate change

climatic changeclimatechanging climateclimate variabilityglobal climate changeclimate variationclimate-changeclimatic changesclimatic variabilityenvironmental change
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).wikipedia
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Weather

weather conditionselementsweather pattern
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change.

General circulation model

global climate modelglobal climate modelsGCM
General circulation models, based on the physical sciences, are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate data, make future projections, and link causes and effects in climate change.
GCMs and global climate models are used for weather forecasting, understanding the climate and forecasting climate change.

Human impact on the environment

anthropogenichuman activityhuman impacts
There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; either "global warming" or "climate change" may be used. In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. External forcing mechanisms can be either anthropogenic—caused by humans—(e.g. increased emissions of greenhouse gases and dust) or natural (e.g., changes in solar output, the earth's orbit, volcano eruptions).
Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate change, deforestation, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Climate ChangeUNFCCCUN Framework Convention on Climate Change
Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change.

History of climate change science

climate change scienceglobal warming
In 1815 Jean-Pierre Perraudin described for the first time how glaciers might be responsible for the giant boulders seen in alpine valleys.
Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions and certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often referred to as global warming. In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming.
Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming.

Climate

climaticclimate systemclimates
Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models. Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and how climate change affects it. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.

Syukuro Manabe

Dr. Syukuro Manabe
In 1967, taking advantage of the ability of digital computers to integrate absorption curves numerically, Syukuro Manabe and Richard Wetherald made the first detailed calculation of the greenhouse effect incorporating convection (the "Manabe-Wetherald one-dimensional radiative-convective model").
Syukuro "Suki" Manabe is a meteorologist and climatologist who pioneered the use of computers to simulate global climate change and natural climate variations.

El Niño

El NinoEl Niño Southern OscillationEl Niño-Southern Oscillation
Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change.
There is no consensus on if climate change will have any influence on the occurrence, strength or duration of El Niño events, as research supports El Niño events becoming stronger, longer, shorter and weaker.

Water cycle

hydrological cyclehydrologic cyclewater
Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedo, evapotranspiration, cloud formation, and weathering.
The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables.

Coal

coal seamcoal industrycoking coal
another glaciation 300 million years ago ushered in by long-term burial of decomposition-resistant detritus of vascular land-plants (creating a carbon sink and forming coal)
Coal damages the environment; including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016 which is 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions.

Solar irradiance

solar radiationinsolationsolar insolation
These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents, atmosphere, and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.
Insolation is essential for numerical weather prediction and understanding seasons and climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)International Panel on Climate Change
Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations, dedicated to providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change, its natural, political and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.

Environmental policy

environmentalenvironmentenvironmental policies
In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming.
The current reliance on a market-based framework is controversial, however, and many environmentalists contend that a more radical, overarching approach is needed than a set of specific initiatives, to deal with climate change.

Climatology

climatologistclimate scienceclimatological
The discipline of climatology lies at the heart of the scientific study of climate, with a vast array of other disciplines making vital contributions.
The PDO is a pattern of Pacific climate variability that shifts phases on at least inter-decadal time scale, usually about 20 to 30 years.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents, atmosphere, and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. External forcing mechanisms can be either anthropogenic—caused by humans—(e.g. increased emissions of greenhouse gases and dust) or natural (e.g., changes in solar output, the earth's orbit, volcano eruptions).
According to UNEP global tourism is closely linked to climate change.

Global cooling

cooling1970s global cooling conjectureEarth was cooling
global cooling over the past 40 million years driven by the expansion of grass-grazer ecosystems
This mechanism is thought to be responsible for the timing of the ice age cycles, and understanding of the mechanism was increasing rapidly in the mid-1970s.

Cryosphere

cryosphericicecryology
Scientists generally define the five components of earth's climate system to include atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere (restricted to the surface soils, rocks, and sediments), and biosphere.
Because of the close relationship observed between hemispheric air temperature and snow-cover extent over the period of satellite data (IPCC 1996), there is considerable interest in monitoring Northern Hemisphere snow-cover extent for detecting and monitoring climate change.

Supervolcano

supervolcanicsupereruptionsupervolcanoes
The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by supererruptions, the most recent of which was the Toba eruption in Indonesia 74,000 years ago.
Another setting for the eruption of very large amounts of volcanic material is in large igneous provinces, which can cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash, causing long-lasting climate change (such as the triggering of a small ice age), which can threaten species with extinction.

Paleoclimatology

paleoclimatepaleoclimatologistpaleoclimatic
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

Carbon cycle

carboncarbon cyclingglobal carbon cycle
Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedo, evapotranspiration, cloud formation, and weathering.
The length of carbon sequestering in soil is dependent on local climatic conditions and thus changes in the course of climate change.

Thermohaline circulation

meridional overturning circulationconveyor beltthermohaline
Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself (e.g., the thermohaline circulation).
Climate change

Axial tilt

obliquityobliquity of the eclipticaxis
The three types of kinematic change are variations in Earth's eccentricity, changes in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotation, and precession of Earth's axis.
Variations in Earth's axial tilt can influence the seasons and is likely a factor in long-term climate change (also see Milankovitch cycles).

Scientific opinion on climate change

scientific consensus on climate changescientific consensusscientific consensus on global warming
The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities",
In 2006, the Geological Society of America adopted a position statement on global climate change.

Ozone depletion

ozone holeozone layer depletionozone-depleting
Other factors, including land use, ozone depletion, animal husbandry (ruminant animals such as cattle produce methane, as do termites), and deforestation, are also of concern in the roles they play—both separately and in conjunction with other factors—in affecting climate, microclimate, and measures of climate variables.
Thus policies protecting the ozone layer have had benefits in mitigating climate change.