Climate change feedback

climate feedbackfeedbackfeedbacksclimate change feedbacksself-reinforcing feedbacksclimate system feedbacksdamped by negative feedbacks and enhanced by positive feedbacksfeedback loopfeedback loops within the climate systempositive and negative climate change feedbacks
Climate change feedback is important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state.wikipedia
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Climate sensitivity

Equilibrium climate sensitivity50% increase in atmospheric CO2are net positive
Climate change feedback is important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state.
A component of climate sensitivity is directly due to radiative forcing, for instance by, and a further contribution arises from climate feedback, both positive and negative.

Tipping points in the climate system

tipping pointrunaway climate changetipping points
Large positive feedbacks can lead to effects that are abrupt or irreversible, depending upon the rate and magnitude of the climate change.
There are many positive and negative feedbacks to global temperatures and the carbon cycle that have been identified.

Runaway greenhouse effect

Hothouse Earthrunaway greenhouserunaway global warming
The sudden release of large amounts of natural gas from methane clathrate deposits, in a runaway global warming event, has been hypothesized as a cause of past and possibly future climate changes.
Positive climate change feedbacks amplify changes in the climate system, and can lead to destabilizing effects for the climate.

Negative feedback

negative feedback loopnegative-feedbacknegative
Positive feedback amplifies the change in the first quantity while negative feedback reduces it.

Climate system

The term "forcing" means a change which may "push" the climate system in the direction of warming or cooling.
The initial response of a component to an external forcing can be damped by negative feedbacks and enhanced by positive feedbacks.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
The melting of its permafrost is likely to lead to the release, over decades, of large quantities of methane.
Climate change can increase atmospheric methane levels by increasing methane production in natural ecosystems, forming a Climate change feedback.

Special Report on Emissions Scenarios

SRESEmissions Scenariosemissions pathways
Their study projected changes in permafrost based on a medium greenhouse gas emissions scenario (SRES A1B).
There are also uncertainties regarding future changes in the Earth's biosphere and feedbacks in the climate system.

Polar amplification

Arctic amplificationamplified response of the Arcticamplified in polar regions
Albedo change is also the main reason why IPCC predict polar temperatures in the northern hemisphere to rise up to twice as much as those of the rest of the world, in a process known as polar amplification.
Some examples of climate system feedbacks thought to contribute to recent polar amplification include the reduction of snow cover and sea ice, changes in atmospheric and ocean circulation, the presence of anthropogenic soot in the Arctic environment, and increases in cloud cover and water vapor.

IPCC Third Assessment Report

Third Assessment ReportThirdTAR
The IPCC Third Assessment Report, published in 2001, looked at possible rapid increases in methane due either to reductions in the atmospheric chemical sink or from the release of buried methane reservoirs.

Climate inertia

climate change that they prevent is itself delayedinertialag
Climate inertia is the phenomenon by which climate systems show resistance or slowness to changes in significant factors, such as greenhouse gas levels. In the context of climate change, this means that mitigation strategies, such as the stabilization of greenhouse emissions, might show a slow response due to the action of complex feedback systems.

Methane emissions

methanelargest natural sourcemethane pollution
Their study suggested that if global methane emissions were to increase by a factor of 2.5 to 5.2 above (then) current emissions, the indirect contribution to radiative forcing would be about 250% and 400% respectively, of the forcing that can be directly attributed to methane.

Carbon cycle

carboncarbon cyclingglobal carbon cycle
Following Le Chatelier's principle, the chemical equilibrium of the Earth's carbon cycle will shift in response to anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.
Arctic methane emissions indirectly caused by anthropogenic global warming also affect the carbon cycle and contribute to further warming in what is known as climate change feedback.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Climate change feedback is important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state.

Greenhouse and icehouse Earth

climate stategreenhouse Earthhothouse climate state
Climate change feedback is important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state.

Feedback

feedback loopfeedback loopsfeedback control
Feedback in general is the process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity, and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first.

Positive feedback

positive feedback looppositiveexacerbated
Positive feedback amplifies the change in the first quantity while negative feedback reduces it.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
An example of a climate forcing is increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.

Stefan–Boltzmann law

Stefan-Boltzmann lawStefan's lawStefan–Boltzmann
The main negative feedback comes from the Stefan–Boltzmann law, the amount of heat radiated from the Earth into space changes with the fourth power of the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

carbon dioxide emissionsatmospheric carbon dioxideCO2 emissions
There have been predictions, and some evidence, that global warming might cause loss of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems, leading to an increase of atmospheric levels.

C4MIP

All 11 models in the C4MIP study found that a larger fraction of anthropogenic CO 2 will stay airborne if climate change is accounted for.

Taiga

boreal forestborealboreal forests
The strongest feedbacks in these cases are due to increased respiration of carbon from soils throughout the high latitude boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere.

HadCM3

HadAM3HadSM3
One model in particular (HadCM3) indicates a secondary carbon cycle feedback due to the loss of much of the Amazon Rainforest in response to significantly reduced precipitation over tropical South America.

Chris Freeman (scientist)

Chris Freeman
It has also been suggested (by Chris Freeman) that the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat bogs into water courses (from which it would in turn enter the atmosphere) constitutes a positive feedback for global warming.

Dissolved organic carbon

dissolved organic matterDOCdissolved
It has also been suggested (by Chris Freeman) that the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat bogs into water courses (from which it would in turn enter the atmosphere) constitutes a positive feedback for global warming.

Peat

turfpeat cuttingpeat extraction
It has also been suggested (by Chris Freeman) that the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat bogs into water courses (from which it would in turn enter the atmosphere) constitutes a positive feedback for global warming.