A report on Climate change mitigation

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects.

- Climate change mitigation
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.

100 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).

Renewable energy

15 links

Energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale.

Energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale.

Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
PlanetSolar, the world's largest solar-powered boat and the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe (in 2012)
A bus fueled by biodiesel
The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China
Wind energy generation by region over time.
Global map of wind power density potential.
Satellite image of the Bhadla Solar Park in India, it is the largest Solar Park in the world
Global map of horizontal irradiation.
Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland
Enhanced geothermal system (see [[:File:EGS diagram.svg|file description]] for details)
Rance Tidal Power Station, France
Estimated power demand over a week in 2012 and 2020, Germany, showing the need for dispatchable generation rather than baseload generation in the grid.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Comparing worldwide energy use, the growth of renewable energy is shown by the green line
Worldwide growth of wind capacity (1996–2018)
Four offshore wind farms are in the Thames Estuary area: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet and London Array. The latter is the largest in the world as of April 2013.
Ivanpah solar plant in the Mojave Desert, California, United States
Solar towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar thermal plants in Spain
Solar panels at the 550 MW Topaz Solar Farm
Brazil produces bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. A typical gas station with dual fuel service is marked "A" for alcohol (ethanol) and "G" for gasoline.
Geothermal plant at The Geysers, California, US
Most respondents to a climate survey conducted in 2021-2022 by the European Investment Bank say countries should back renewable energy to fight climate change.
A concept of a super grid.
Burbo, NW-England
Sunrise at the Fenton Wind Farm in Minnesota, US
The CSP-station Andasol in Andalusia, Spain
Three Gorges Dam and Gezhouba Dam, China
Shop selling PV panels in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Stump harvesting increases recovery of biomass from forests
A small, roof-top mounted PV system in Bonn, Germany
The community-owned Westmill Solar Park in South East England
Komekurayama photovoltaic power station in Kofu, Japan
Krafla, a geothermal power station in Iceland

Deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.

Diagram explaining the relationships between risk, hazard mitigation, resilience, and adaptation

Climate change adaptation

10 links

Process of adjusting to current or expected effects of climate change.

Process of adjusting to current or expected effects of climate change.

Diagram explaining the relationships between risk, hazard mitigation, resilience, and adaptation
Wetland restoration in Australia
Checking contours in Monterey County strawberry fields, United States
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers save soil and improve water quality on this farm in Woodbury County in northwest Iowa, United States
Flood protection for town of Ybbs along the river Donau
Green roof
Reforestation activities in Praslin, Seychelles
The Government of Kiribati is addressing the threats of climate change to Kiribati, under the Kiribati Adaptation Program. Island nations in the Pacific are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
Launching the Coastal City Adaptation Project in Quelimane, Mozambique
Coastal City Adaptation Project, in Quelimane city, Mozambique. It will improve Quelimane's preparation for events like floods, erosion, sea level rise and other weather and climate related events.

It is one of the ways to respond to climate change, along with mitigation.

Paris Agreement

10 links

International treaty on climate change, adopted in 2015.

International treaty on climate change, adopted in 2015.

Heads of delegations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris
Signing by John Kerry in United Nations General Assembly Hall for the United States
The Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi greeting the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, at the COP21 Summit on 30 November 2015
Since 2000, rising emissions in China and the rest of the world have surpassed the output of the United States and Europe.
Per person, the United States generates at a far faster rate than other primary regions.
Pledges to the Green Climate Fund in 2018. The numbers represent the signed pledges per year.
Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions. If all countries achieve their current Paris Agreement pledges, average warming by 2100 would still exceed the maximum 2°C target set by the Agreement.

It covers climate change mitigation, adaptation, and finance.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

7 links

International environmental treaty to combat "dangerous human interference with the climate system", in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

International environmental treaty to combat "dangerous human interference with the climate system", in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

Global carbon dioxide emissions by jurisdiction (as of 2015)
A "family photo" organized by Greenpeace, at the entrance to the United Nations, with a banner reading "We Will Move Ahead"
Parties to the UNFCCC
Parties: Annexes, EU, OECD, EITs
UN Campus, Bonn, seat of the secretariat
Projected global warming in 2100 for a range of emission scenarios
alt=graph showing five prediction curves, all starting at the same point in the year 2000, then rising to different maximum levels in different years, and finally falling to very different levels in 2100|Climate change mitigation scenarios: projected global greenhouse gas emissions, years 2000 to 2100
alt=graph showing five prediction curves, all starting at the same point in the year 2000, then rising at different rates – the two highest curves continue to rise while the lowest three curves peak at different levels in different years and fall to different final levels in 2100|Climate change mitigation scenarios: projected changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, years 2000 to 2100
alt=graph showing five prediction curves, all starting at the same point in the year 2000, then rising at different rates – the three highest curves continue to rise while the lowest two curves peak at different levels in different years and fall to different final levels in 2100|Climate change mitigation scenarios: projected global mean temperature, years 2000 to 2100

Annex 1 countries are called upon to adopt national policies and take corresponding measures on the mitigation of climate change by limiting their anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases as well as to report on steps adopted with the aim of returning individually or jointly to their 1990 emissions levels.

Kyoto Protocol

7 links

International treaty which extended the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it.

International treaty which extended the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it.

Kyoto Parties with first period (2008–12) greenhouse gas emissions limitations targets, and the percentage change in their carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion between 1990 and 2009. For more detailed country/region information, see Kyoto Protocol and government action.
Acceptance of the Doha Amendment
emissions from fuel combustion of Annex I Kyoto Protocol (KP) Parties, 1990–2009. Total Annex I KP emissions are shown, along with emissions of Annex II KP and Annex I EITs.
Anthropogenic emissions of CO2-equivalents per year by the 10 largest emitters (the European Union is lumped as a single area, because of their integrated carbon trading scheme). Data sorted based on 2010 contributions.
China (party, no binding targets)
United States (non-party)
European Union (party, binding targets)
India (party, no binding targets)
Russia (party, binding targets 2008–2012)
Indonesia (party, no binding targets)
Brazil (party, no binding targets)
Japan (party, no binding targets)
Congo (DR) (party, no binding targets)
Canada (former party, binding targets 2008–2012)
Other countries

Factors that might affect this decision include the local consequences of climate change impacts, the ability of a particular region to adapt to climate change (adaptive capacity), and the ability of a region to reduce its GHG emissions (mitigative capacity).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

6 links

Intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for advancing knowledge on human-induced climate change.

Intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for advancing knowledge on human-induced climate change.

The IPCC provides objective and comprehensive scientific information on anthropogenic climate change, including the natural, political, and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.

Deforestation in New Zealand.

Deforestation

9 links

Removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use.

Removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use.

Deforestation in New Zealand.
Satellite image of deforestation in progress in eastern Bolivia. Worldwide, 10% of wilderness areas were lost between 1990 and 2015.
Forest Landscape Integrity Index showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest.
Annual deforestation
Annual change in forest area
Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil's Maranhão state, 2016
The amount of globally needed agricultural land would be reduced by three quarters if the entire population adopted a vegan diet.
Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation by region, 2000–2010, from FAO publication The State of the World's Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief.
Drivers of tropical deforestration
The last batch of sawnwood from the peat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palm plantation.
Illegal gold mining in Madre de Dios, Peru.
Biophysical mechanisms by which forests influence climate.
Per capita CO2 emissions from deforestation for food production
Illegal "slash-and-burn" practice in Madagascar, 2010
Mean annual carbon loss from tropical deforestation.
Fires on Borneo and Sumatra, 2006. People use slash-and-burn deforestation to clear land for agriculture.
Deforestation of the Highland Plateau in Madagascar has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.
Deforestation in France.
Illegal logging in Madagascar. In 2009, the vast majority of the illegally obtained rosewood was exported to China.
A satellite image showing deforestation for a palm oil plantation in Malaysia
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, ax heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
Easter Island, deforested. According to Jared Diamond: "Among past societies faced with the prospect of ruinous deforestation, Easter Island and Mangareva chiefs succumbed to their immediate concerns, but Tokugawa shoguns, Inca emperors, New Guinea highlanders, and 16th century German landowners adopted a long view and reafforested."
Deforestation of Brazil's Atlantic Forest c.1820–1825
Deforestation in Suriname c.1880–1900
Tropical deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss)
Deforestation in Venezuela for cattle breeding.
Satellite image of Haiti's border with the Dominican Republic (right) shows the amount of deforestation on the Haitian side
Deforestation around Pakke Tiger Reserve, India
Satellite imagery of locations of the 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires as detected by MODIS from August 15 to August 22, 2019
Deforestation in Ecuador.
An incomplete concept of a framework of policy mix sequencing for zero-deforestation governance. Non-intervention in processes related to beef production via policies may be a main driver of tropical deforestation.
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Agents from IBAMA, Brazil's environmental police, searching for illegal logging activity in Indigenous territory in the Amazon rainforest, 2018
Bamboo is advocated as a more sustainable alternative for cutting down wood for fuel.
Deforestation in Germany.
Timelapse of recent deforestation of the Amazon rainforest
U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange during the Vietnam War

Such policies may use and organize the development of complementary technical and economic means – including for lower levels of beef production, sales and consumption (which would also have major benefits for climate change mitigation), higher levels of specified other economic activities in such areas (such as reforestation, forest protection, sustainable agriculture for specific classes of food products and quaternary work in general), product information requirements, practice- and product-certifications and eco-tariffs, along with the required monitoring and traceability.

Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from heavy industry, such as a chemical plant.

Carbon sequestration

7 links

Process of storing carbon in a carbon pool.

Process of storing carbon in a carbon pool.

Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from heavy industry, such as a chemical plant.
Global proposed vs. implemented annual CO2 sequestration. More than 75% of proposed gas processing projects have been implemented, with corresponding figures for other industrial projects and power plant projects being about 60% and 10%, respectively.
An oceanic phytoplankton bloom in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Argentina. Encouraging such blooms with iron fertilization could lock up carbon on the seabed.
Biochar can be landfilled, used as a soil improver or burned using carbon capture and storage

Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change.

Wind farm in Xinjiang, China

Wind power

5 links

Mostly the use of wind turbines to generate electricity.

Mostly the use of wind turbines to generate electricity.

Wind farm in Xinjiang, China
Electricity production by source
Global map of wind speed at 100 m above surface level.
Roscoe Wind Farm in West Texas
Distribution of wind speed (red) and energy (blue) for all of 2002 at the Lee Ranch facility in Colorado. The histogram shows measured data, while the curve is the Rayleigh model distribution for the same average wind speed.
The world's second full-scale floating wind turbine (and first to be installed without the use of heavy-lift vessels), WindFloat, operating at rated capacity (2 MW) approximately 5 km offshore of Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal
Wind energy generation by region over time
Wind generation by country
Share of electricity production from wind, 2020
Wind turbines are typically installed in windy locations. In the image, wind power generators in Spain, near an Osborne bull.
Seasonal cycle of capacity factors for wind and photovoltaics in Europe under idealized assumptions. The figure illustrates the balancing effects of wind and solar energy at the seasonal scale (Kaspar et al., 2019).
Onshore wind cost per kilowatt-hour between 1983 and 2017
A turbine blade convoy passing through Edenfield in the U.K. (2008). Even longer 2-piece blades are now manufactured, and then assembled on-site to reduce difficulties in transportation.
A small Quietrevolution QR5 Gorlov type vertical axis wind turbine on the roof of Colston Hall in Bristol, England. Measuring 3 m in diameter and 5 m high, it has a nameplate rating of 6.5 kW.
Livestock grazing near a wind turbine.
Part of the Seto Hill Windfarm in Japan.
Wind turbines such as these, in Cumbria, England, have been opposed for a number of reasons, including aesthetics, by some sectors of the population.
A panoramic view of the United Kingdom's Whitelee Wind Farm with Lochgoin Reservoir in the foreground.
Charles F. Brush's windmill of 1888, used for generating electric power.

To help meet the Paris Agreement goals to limit climate change, analysts say it should expand much faster - by over 1% of electricity generation per year.

Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries

Fossil fuel

6 links

Hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the earth's crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that is extracted and burned as a fuel.

Hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the earth's crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that is extracted and burned as a fuel.

Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.

In 2021, the International Energy Agency concluded that no new fossil fuel extraction projects could be opened if the global economy and society wants to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and meet international goals for climate change mitigation.