Climate change mitigation

mitigationMitigation of global warmingclimate protectionclimate actionmitigatemitigate global warmingmitigate climate changemitigation of climate changeAction on climate changeclimate mitigation
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term global warming and its related effects.wikipedia
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Effects of global warming

effects of climate changeimpacts of climate changeeffects
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term global warming and its related effects.
The physical effects of human-caused climate change depends on the extent of prevention efforts (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions).

Climate change adaptation

adaptationAdaptation to global warmingclimate adaptation
According to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report, "Mitigation is a public good; climate change is a case of the 'tragedy of the commons'. Effective climate change mitigation will not be achieved if each agent (individual, institution or country) acts independently in its own selfish interest (see International cooperation and Emissions trading), suggesting the need for collective action. Some adaptation actions, on the other hand, have characteristics of a private good as benefits of actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue, particularly for poor individuals and countries."
Even the most effective climate change mitigation through reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or enhanced removal of these gases from the atmosphere (through carbon sinks) would not prevent further climate change impacts, making the need for adaptation unavoidable.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term global warming and its related effects. The incentive to use 100% renewable energy has been created by global warming and other ecological as well as economic concerns.
Societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, and possibly climate engineering.

Fossil fuel phase-out

Coal phase outFossil-fuel phase-outphase-out coal
Examples of mitigation include reducing energy demand by increasing energy efficiency, phasing out fossil fuels by switching to low-carbon energy sources, and removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere.
The reasons for phasing-out fossil fuels are: the health risks of air pollution, mitigation of global warming, and the falling cost of renewable energy.

Climate engineering

geoengineeringgeo-engineeringHydrological geoengineering
Another approach to climate change mitigation is climate engineering.
Climate engineering approaches are sometimes viewed as potential options for limiting climate change or its impacts, alongside mitigation and adaptation.

Individual and political action on climate change

climate change activistclimate activismaction
Other frequently discussed means include efficiency, public transport, increasing fuel economy in automobiles (which includes the use of electric hybrids), charging plug-in hybrids and electric cars by low-carbon electricity, making individual changes, and changing business practices.
Many actions aim to build social and political support to limit, and subsequently reduce, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, with the goal of mitigating climate change.

Economics of global warming

economics of climate changeeconomic developmenteconomics
As is stated in Article 2 of the Convention, this requires that greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are stabilized in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion.
The two main policy responses to global warming are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and to adapt to the impacts of global warming (e.g., by building levees in response to sea level rise).

Business action on climate change

business community towardsbusinesseschanging business practices
Other frequently discussed means include efficiency, public transport, increasing fuel economy in automobiles (which includes the use of electric hybrids), charging plug-in hybrids and electric cars by low-carbon electricity, making individual changes, and changing business practices.
Business also plays a key role in the mitigation of global warming, through decisions to invest in researching and implementing new energy technologies and energy efficiency measures.

Renewable energy

renewablesrenewable energiesrenewable
These include nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as biomass, hydroelectricity, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, ocean energy, and; the use of carbon sinks, and carbon capture and storage.
Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.

Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change (2005 conference)

Avoiding dangerous climate changeavoid dangerous climate changeprevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has the ultimate objective of preventing "dangerous" anthropogenic (i.e., human) interference with the climate system.
The conference name was derived from Article 2 of the charter for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change The conference explored the possible impacts at different levels of greenhouse gas emissions and how the climate might be stabilized at a desired level.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCCClimate ChangeUN Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has the ultimate objective of preventing "dangerous" anthropogenic (i.e., human) interference with the climate system. Almost all countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
To stabilize atmospheric GHG concentrations, global anthropogenic GHG emissions would need to peak then decline (see climate change mitigation).

100% renewable energy

The Energy Imperative: 100 Percent Renewable Now100 percent renewable100% of its net power from renewables
The incentive to use 100% renewable energy has been created by global warming and other ecological as well as economic concerns.
The latter is a climate mitigation target, politically decided by many countries, and may also be achieved by balancing the total carbon footprint of the country (not only emissions from energy and fuel) with carbon dioxide removal and carbon projects abroad.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)International Panel on Climate Change
According to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report, "Mitigation is a public good; climate change is a case of the 'tragedy of the commons'. Effective climate change mitigation will not be achieved if each agent (individual, institution or country) acts independently in its own selfish interest (see International cooperation and Emissions trading), suggesting the need for collective action. Some adaptation actions, on the other hand, have characteristics of a private good as benefits of actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue, particularly for poor individuals and countries."
IPCC reports cover the "scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation."

Carbon capture and storage

carbon captureCCScarbon capture and sequestration
These include nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as biomass, hydroelectricity, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, ocean energy, and; the use of carbon sinks, and carbon capture and storage. Examples are direct air capture, enhanced weathering technologies such as storing it in geologic formations underground and biochar.
It is a potential means of mitigating the contribution to global warming and ocean acidification of carbon dioxide emissions from industry and heating.

World energy consumption

energyWorld energy resources and consumptionenergy demand
Energy efficiency has proved to be a cost-effective strategy for building economies without necessarily growing energy consumption.
Efforts to resolve this include the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2015), international governmental agreements aiming to reduce harmful climate impacts, which a number of nations have signed.

Allan Savory

Savory Institute
Allan Savory, as part of holistic management, claims that while large herds are often blamed for desertification, prehistoric lands supported large or larger herds and areas where herds were removed in the United States are still desertifying.
He believes grasslands hold the potential to sequester enough atmospheric carbon dioxide to reverse climate change.

Biosequestration

absorb carbon dioxide from the atmospherebiologicalBiological sequestration
The main natural process is photosynthesis by plants and single-celled organisms (see biosequestration).
It is a key policy concept in the climate change mitigation debate.

Emissions trading

cap and tradecap-and-tradeemissions trading scheme
According to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report, "Mitigation is a public good; climate change is a case of the 'tragedy of the commons'. Effective climate change mitigation will not be achieved if each agent (individual, institution or country) acts independently in its own selfish interest (see International cooperation and Emissions trading), suggesting the need for collective action. Some adaptation actions, on the other hand, have characteristics of a private good as benefits of actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue, particularly for poor individuals and countries."
It is one of the ways countries can meet their obligations under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon emissions and thereby mitigate global warming.

Kyoto Protocol

Climate Change-Kyoto ProtocolKyoto AccordKyoto
The emissions caps agreed to by most developed countries under the Kyoto Protocol regulate the emissions of almost all the anthropogenic GHGs.
Factors that might affect this decision include the local consequences of climate change impacts, the ability of a particular region to adapt to climate change (adaptive capacity), and the ability of a region to reduce its GHG emissions (mitigative capacity).

Ocean acidification

acidificationacidified the oceansacidification of the oceans
However, this also leads to ocean acidification, which may harm marine life.
The degree of change to ocean chemistry, including ocean pH, will depend on the mitigation and emissions pathways taken by society.

Carbon dioxide removal

carbon negativecarbon dioxide air captureCarbon air capture
Examples of mitigation include reducing energy demand by increasing energy efficiency, phasing out fossil fuels by switching to low-carbon energy sources, and removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere.
The mitigation effectiveness of air capture is limited by societal investment, land use, availability of geologic reservoirs, and leakage.

Nuclear power

nuclear energynuclearnuclear industry
These include nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as biomass, hydroelectricity, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, ocean energy, and; the use of carbon sinks, and carbon capture and storage.
On the other hand, measures to mitigate global warming, such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading, may favor the economics of nuclear power.

Biochar

bio-charBiochar processing in thermal power stationsBiochar production
Examples are direct air capture, enhanced weathering technologies such as storing it in geologic formations underground and biochar.
This technique is advocated by prominent scientists such as James Hansen, head of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and James Lovelock, creator of the Gaia hypothesis, for mitigation of global warming by greenhouse gas remediation.

Attribution of recent climate change

anthropogenic global warmingcauses of climate changehuman-caused
Mitigation policies can substantially reduce the risks associated with human-induced global warming.

Paris Agreement

Paris Climate AgreementParis climate accordParis Climate Accords
With the Paris Agreement of 2015 this was confirmed, but was revised with a new target laying down "parties will do the best" to achieve warming below 1.5 °C.
The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016.