Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Protestor in Melbourne calling for a just transition and decarbonisation
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

Just transition is a framework developed by the trade union movement to encompass a range of social interventions needed to secure workers' rights and livelihoods when economies are shifting to sustainable production, primarily combating climate change and protecting biodiversity.

- Just transition

Fossil fuels emit most carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas as a whole.

- Climate change mitigation

In the European Union, the concerns facing workers in fossil fuel industries are addressed by the Just Transition mechanism in the European Green Deal.

- Just transition

Many stakeholders argue that this change needs to be a just transition and create policy that addresses the societal burdens created by the stranded assets of the fossil fuel industry.

- Fossil fuel

In 2021, the International Energy Agency concluded that no new fossil fuel extraction projects could be opened if the global economy and society wants to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and meet international goals for climate change mitigation.

- Fossil fuel

There is also research and debate about requirements of how economic systems could be transformed for sustainability – such as how their jobs could transition harmonously into green jobs – a just transition – and how relevant sectors of the economy – like the renewable energy industry and the bioeconomy – could be adequately supported.

- Climate change mitigation
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries

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