Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
PlanetSolar, the world's largest solar-powered boat and the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe (in 2012)
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
A bus fueled by biodiesel
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Wind energy generation by region over time.
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
Global map of wind power density potential.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Satellite image of the Bhadla Solar Park in India, it is the largest Solar Park in the world
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
Global map of horizontal irradiation.
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
Enhanced geothermal system (see [[:File:EGS diagram.svg|file description]] for details)
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Rance Tidal Power Station, France
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Estimated power demand over a week in 2012 and 2020, Germany, showing the need for dispatchable generation rather than baseload generation in the grid.
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Comparing worldwide energy use, the growth of renewable energy is shown by the green line
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Worldwide growth of wind capacity (1996–2018)
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Four offshore wind farms are in the Thames Estuary area: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet and London Array. The latter is the largest in the world as of April 2013.
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Ivanpah solar plant in the Mojave Desert, California, United States
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
Solar towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar thermal plants in Spain
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Solar panels at the 550 MW Topaz Solar Farm
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Brazil produces bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. A typical gas station with dual fuel service is marked "A" for alcohol (ethanol) and "G" for gasoline.
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
Geothermal plant at The Geysers, California, US
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
Most respondents to a climate survey conducted in 2021-2022 by the European Investment Bank say countries should back renewable energy to fight climate change.
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
A concept of a super grid.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Burbo, NW-England
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Sunrise at the Fenton Wind Farm in Minnesota, US
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
The CSP-station Andasol in Andalusia, Spain
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
Three Gorges Dam and Gezhouba Dam, China
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
Shop selling PV panels in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Stump harvesting increases recovery of biomass from forests
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
A small, roof-top mounted PV system in Bonn, Germany
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
The community-owned Westmill Solar Park in South East England
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Komekurayama photovoltaic power station in Kofu, Japan
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Krafla, a geothermal power station in Iceland
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

Fossil fuels emit most carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas as a whole.

- Climate change mitigation

Deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.

- Renewable energy

In 2021, the International Energy Agency concluded that no new fossil fuel extraction projects could be opened if the global economy and society wants to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and meet international goals for climate change mitigation.

- Fossil fuel

Renewable energy stands in contrast to fossil fuels, which are being used far more quickly than they are being replenished.

- Renewable energy

This includes a movement to use alternative energy sources, such as renewable energy.

- Fossil fuel

The deployment of renewable energy would have to be accelerated six-fold though to stay under the 2 °C target.

- Climate change mitigation
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.

1 related topic with Alpha

Overall

Air pollution from a coking oven

Air pollution

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Contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials.

Contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials.

Air pollution from a coking oven
2016 air quality indicator – light colors have lower air quality and thus higher air pollution.
Aviation is a major source of air pollution.
Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro, Georgia, in preparation for spring planting
Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, 2018
Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas
Beijing air in 2005 after rain (left) and a smoggy day (right)
E-waste processing in Agbogbloshie, Ghana using open-burning of electronics to access valuable metals like copper. Open burning of plastics is common in many parts of the world without the capacity for processing. Especially without proper protections, heavy metals and other contaminates can seep into the soil, and create water pollution and air pollution.
Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground-level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides
Up to 30% of Europeans living in cities are exposed to air pollutant levels exceeding EU air quality standards. Around 98% of Europeans living in cities are exposed to levels of air pollutants deemed damaging to health by the World Health Organization's more stringent guidelines.
Share of deaths from indoor air pollution
Air quality monitoring, New Delhi, India
Share of deaths from outdoor air pollution, OWID
Comparison of footprint-based and transboundary pollution-based relationships among G20 nations for the number of PM2.5-related premature deaths.
Unprotected exposure to PM2.5 air pollution can be equivalent to smoking multiple cigarettes per day, potentially increasing the risk of cancer, which is mainly the result of environmental factors.
Share of the population exposed to air pollution levels above WHO guidelines, OWID
Artist's illustration of an advanced ET civilization with industrial pollution
Support for a ban on high-emission vehicles in city centres in Europe, China and the US from respondents to the European Investment Bank Climate Survey
Support, use and infrastructure-expansion of forms of public transport that do not cause air pollution may be a critical key alternative to pollution
Tarps and netting are often used to reduce the amount of dust released from construction sites.
Smog in Cairo
Nitrogen dioxide concentrations as measured from satellite 2002–2004
Deaths from air pollution in 2004
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
Thermal oxidisers are air pollution abatement options for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and odorous emissions.
Deaths from air pollution per 100,000 inhabitants (IHME, 2019)
Burning of items polluting Jamestown environment in Accra, Ghana

Some of these efforts have been successful at the international level, such as the Montreal Protocol, which reduced the release of harmful ozone depleting chemicals, and the 1985 Helsinki Protocol, which reduced sulphur emissions, while others, such as international action on climate change, have been less successful.

fossil-fuel power plants and biomass power plants both have smoke stacks (see for example environmental impact of the coal industry)

A very effective means to reduce air pollution is the transition to renewable energy.