Climbing

climberclimbersrock climbingrock climbersclimbrock-climbersrock climberrock-climbingclimbsrock climb
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object.wikipedia
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Canyoning

canyoneeringcanyoneerscanyoners
Canyoneering: Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation.
Canyoning (canyoneering in the U.S. / kloofing in South-Africa / torrentismo in Italian, barranquismo in Spanish) is travelling in canyons using a variety of techniques that may include other outdoor activities such as walking, scrambling, climbing, jumping, abseiling (rappelling), and swimming.

Rock climbing

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Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, and possibly bolts, for protection, (in contrast with traditional climbing, where the rock is typically devoid of fixed anchors and bolts, and where climbers must place removable protection as they climb).
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.

Climbing protection

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Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, and possibly bolts, for protection, (in contrast with traditional climbing, where the rock is typically devoid of fixed anchors and bolts, and where climbers must place removable protection as they climb).
Climbing protection is any of a variety of devices employed to reduce risk and protect others while climbing rock and ice.

Ice climbing

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Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment, usually ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices (such as ice screws and snow wedges) adapted to frozen conditions.
Usually, ice climbing refers to roped and protected climbing of features such as icefalls, frozen waterfalls, and cliffs and rock slabs covered with ice refrozen from flows of water.

Ice axe

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Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment, usually ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices (such as ice screws and snow wedges) adapted to frozen conditions.
An ice axe is a multi-purpose hiking and climbing tool used by mountaineers both in the ascent and descent of routes that involve frozen conditions with snow and/or ice.

Global Association of International Sports Federations

GAISFGeneral Association of International Sport Federations2015 SportAccord Awards
Competition climbing: A formal, competitive sport of recent origins, normally practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural formations. The International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) is the official organization governing competition rock climbing worldwide and is recognized by the IOC and GAISF and is a member of the International World Games Association (IWGA). The UIAA is the official organization governing competition ice climbing worldwide. Competition climbing has three major disciplines: Lead, Bouldering and Speed.

Lead climbing

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Indoor climbing: Top roping, lead climbing, and bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym.
Lead climbing is a climbing technique used to ascend a route.

Kernmantle rope

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Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress.
Nylon ropes that were used in yachts for hauling were tested and found useful in climbing and caving and are now the modern standard.

Mountaineering

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Mountaineering: Ascending mountains for sport or recreation. It often involves rock and/or ice climbing (Alpine climbing).
Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking, skiing, and traversing via ferratas.

Abseiling

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Rope access: Industrial climbing, usually abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures.
This technique is used by climbers, mountaineers, cavers, canyoners, search and rescue and rope access technicians to descend cliffs or slopes when they are too steep and/or dangerous to descend without protection.

Bouldering mat

bouldering padclimbing matcrash pad
Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Usually, instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter (to direct a falling climber on to the pad. They can also give beta, or advice)
With the higher density foam at the top this will prevent the climber's foot from sinking through the foam and either gaining impact on the ground or getting a foot stuck in the mat which would increase the chance of injury.

Rope access

industrial alpinistindustrial rope work
Rope access: Industrial climbing, usually abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures.
Rope access is a form of work positioning, initially developed from techniques used in climbing and caving, which applies practical ropework to allow workers to access difficult-to-reach locations without the use of scaffolding, cradles or an aerial work platform.

Scrambling

ScrambleSimple scrambleSimple scrambling
Scrambling which includes easy rock climbing, and is considered part of hillwalking.
It is an ambiguous term that lies somewhere between hiking, hillwalking, mountaineering, and rock climbing.

Traditional climbing

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Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, and possibly bolts, for protection, (in contrast with traditional climbing, where the rock is typically devoid of fixed anchors and bolts, and where climbers must place removable protection as they climb).
Traditional climbing, or trad climbing, is a style of rock climbing in which a climber or group of climbers place all gear required to protect against falls, and remove it when a pitch is complete.

Top rope climbing

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Indoor climbing: Top roping, lead climbing, and bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym. Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below
Top rope climbing (or top roping) is a style in climbing in which the climber is securely attached to a rope which then passes up, through an anchor system at the top of the climb, and down to a belayer at the foot of the climb.

Belaying

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Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Solo climbing: Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying them. When free soloing, an error usually is fatal as no belay systems are being used. Soloing can also be self-belayed, hence minimizing the risks.
Belaying refers to a variety of techniques climbers use to exert tension on a climbing rope so that a falling climber does not fall very far.

Solo climbing

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Solo climbing: Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying them. When free soloing, an error usually is fatal as no belay systems are being used. Soloing can also be self-belayed, hence minimizing the risks.
Solo climbing, or soloing, is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without the assistance of a belay.

Aid climbing

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Aid climbing
Aid climbing is a style of climbing in which standing on or pulling oneself up via devices attached to fixed or placed protection is used to make upward progress.

Glossary of climbing terms

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Glossary of climbing terms
This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering.

Pole climbing

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Pole climbing: Climbing poles and masts without equipment.
Climbing

List of climbing knots

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Glossary of knots common in climbing
There are many knots used in climbing, rappelling and mountaineering.

Outdoor education

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Outdoor education
Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey wilderness-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges and outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and group games.

Speed climbing

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Speed climbing
Speed climbing is a climbing discipline in which speed is the ultimate goal.

Outdoor recreation

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Outdoor activity
Some outdoor goal-directed activities are: backpacking, canoeing, canyoning, caving, climbing, hiking, hill walking, hunting, kayaking, and rafting.

Simul climbing

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Running belay
Simul climbing, also known as climbing with a running belay, is a climbing method or style where all the climbers climb at the same time while tied into the same rope.