Clinical psychology

clinical psychologistclinicalclinical psychologistsclinical psychiatrypsychological medicineclinicianClinical health psychologistclinical practiceClinicallycounseling psychology
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.wikipedia
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Clinical formulation

case formulationformulationProblem formulation
Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.
It is most commonly used by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists and is deemed to be a core component of these professions.

Lightner Witmer

L. Witmer
The field is generally considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer.
He introduced the term "clinical psychology" and is often credited with founding the field that it describes.

Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapy
Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.
The American Psychological Association adopted a resolution on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in 2012 based on a definition developed by John C. Norcross: "Psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable".

Clinic

clinicsmedical clinichealth clinic
The field is generally considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer.
Other types of clinics are run by the type of specialist associated with that type: physical therapy clinics by physiotherapists and psychology clinics by clinical psychologists, and so on for each health profession.

Doctor of Clinical Psychology

Clinical PsychologyClinical Psychology DoctorateD.Clin.Psych.
In the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the Clinical Psychology Doctorate falls between the latter two of these models, whilst in much of mainland Europe, the training is at the masters level and predominantly psychotherapeutic.
The degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy/DClinPsych/ClinPsyD) is a professional doctorate in clinical psychology, awarded mainly in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Mental health professional

mental health professionalsmental health careshrink
In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession.
As Dr. William Anthony, father of psychiatric rehabilitation, described, psychiatric nurses (RNMH, RMN, CPN), clinical psychologists (PsyD or PhD), clinical social workers (MSW or MSSW), mental health counselors (MA or MS), professional counselors, pharmacists, as well as many other professionals are often educated in "psychiatric fields" or conversely, educated in a generic community approach (e.g. human services programs or health and human services in 2013).

Practitioner–scholar model

scholar-practitionerScholar-practitioner modelPractitioner-scholar model
Several other similar programs were instituted soon after, and in 1973, at the Vail Conference on Professional Training in Psychology, the practitioner–scholar model of clinical psychology—or Vail Model—resulting in the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree was recognized.
It was initially developed to train clinical psychologists but has since been adapted by other specialty programs such as business, public health, and law.

Health psychology

health psychologisthealthcritical health
One important field is health psychology, the fastest-growing employment setting for clinical psychologists in the past decade.
Although its early beginnings can be traced to the field of clinical psychology, four different divisions within health psychology and one related field, occupational health psychology (OHP), have developed over time.

British Psychological Society

British Journal of PsychologyBPSBritish Psychology Society
Clinical psychology in Britain developed much like in the U.S. after WWII, specifically within the context of the National Health Service with qualifications, standards, and salaries managed by the British Psychological Society. These clinical psychology doctoral degrees are accredited by the British Psychological Society and the Health Professions Council (HPC).
Its current President for 2019-2020 is David Murphy, a Clinical Psychologist, Educator & Researcher.

Scientist–practitioner model

scientist-practitioner modelBoulder modelBoulder Conference
Since that time, three main educational models have developed in the USA—the Ph.D. Clinical Science model (heavily focused on research), the Ph.D. science-practitioner model (integrating research and practice), and the Psy.D. practitioner-scholar model (focusing on clinical practice).
It was initially developed to guide clinical psychology graduate programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA).

American Psychological Association

APAAmerican Psychology AssociationAmerican Psychological Association (APA)
This only lasted until 1919, after which the American Psychological Association (founded by G. Stanley Hall in 1892) developed a section on Clinical Psychology, which offered certification until 1927.
Due to the dominance of clinical psychology in APA, several research-focused groups have broken away from the organization.

Doctor of Psychology

Psy.D.PsyDPsy.D
Several other similar programs were instituted soon after, and in 1973, at the Vail Conference on Professional Training in Psychology, the practitioner–scholar model of clinical psychology—or Vail Model—resulting in the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree was recognized. Since that time, three main educational models have developed in the USA—the Ph.D. Clinical Science model (heavily focused on research), the Ph.D. science-practitioner model (integrating research and practice), and the Psy.D. practitioner-scholar model (focusing on clinical practice).
Earning the degree was originally completed through one of two established training models for clinical psychology.

Psychologist

psychologistsclinical psychologistresearch psychologist
An important area of expertise for many clinical psychologists is psychological assessment, and there are indications that as many as 91% of psychologists engage in this core clinical practice.
Clinical psychology and counseling psychology are two fields of applied psychology that focus on therapeutic methods.

American Board of Professional Psychology

ABPPAmerican Board of Examiners in Professional Psychologyboard-certified
In the United States such specializations are credentialed by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP).
Determining that a distinction should be made between basic and advanced levels of competence, ABEPP focused its attention to the latter and identified three fields of certification – Clinical Psychology; Personnel-Industrial (later becoming Industrial Psychology, and then Industrial/Organizational Psychology); and Personnel-Educational (later becoming Counseling and Guidance, and then Counseling Psychology).

Personality test

personality testspersonalitypersonality quiz
Personality assessment is used in wide a range of contexts, including individual and relationship counseling, clinical psychology, forensic psychology, school psychology, career counseling, employment testing, occupational health and safety and customer relationship management.

Forensic psychology

forensic psychologistforensicforensic psychologists
The majority of clinical psychologists engage in some form of clinical practice, with professional services including psychological assessment, provision of psychotherapy, development and administration of clinical programs, and forensics (e.g., providing expert testimony in a legal proceeding).
A forensic psychologist can be trained in clinical, social, organizational, or any other branch of psychology.

Paul E. Meehl

Paul MeehlMeehlPaul Everett Meehl
What has come to be called the "clinical versus statistical prediction" debate was first described in detail in 1954 by Paul Meehl, where he explored the claim that mechanical (formal, algorithmic) methods of data combination could outperform clinical (e.g., subjective, informal, "in the clinician's head") methods when such combinations are used to arrive at a prediction of behavior.
Paul Everett Meehl (3 January 1920 – 14 February 2003) was an American clinical psychologist, Hathaway and Regents' Professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota, and past president of the American Psychological Association.

Psychological evaluation

psychiatric evaluationpsychological assessmentassessment
An important area of expertise for many clinical psychologists is psychological assessment, and there are indications that as many as 91% of psychologists engage in this core clinical practice. However, clinical psychologists continued to make inroads into this area due to their increasing skill at psychological assessment.
Within clinical psychology, the "clinical method" is an approach to understanding and treating mental disorders that begins with a particular individual's personal history and is designed around that individual's psychological needs.

Learning disability

learning disabilitieslearning difficultieslearning disorders
His successful treatment was soon to lead to Witmer's opening of the first psychological clinic at Penn in 1896, dedicated to helping children with learning disabilities.
Learning disabilities can be identified by psychiatrists, school psychologists, clinical psychologists, counseling psychologists, neuropsychologists and other learning disability specialists through a combination of intelligence testing, academic achievement testing, classroom performance, and social interaction and aptitude.

Systematic desensitization

systematic desensitisationgraduated exposure therapyphobias
There are many techniques used, such as systematic desensitization, socratic questioning, and keeping a cognition observation log.
It is used in the field of clinical psychology to help many people effectively overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders that are based on classical conditioning, and shares the same elements of both cognitive-behavioral therapy and applied behavior analysis.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Clinical psychology and social work developed as professions.

Health and Care Professions Council

Health Professions CouncilHPCHealth and Care Professions Council (HCPC)
These clinical psychology doctoral degrees are accredited by the British Psychological Society and the Health Professions Council (HPC).

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
As soldiers began to return from combat, psychologists started to notice symptoms of psychological trauma labeled "shell shock" (eventually to be termed posttraumatic stress disorder) that were best treated as soon as possible.

School psychology

school psychologistschool psychologistsschool
School psychologists are primarily concerned with the academic, social, and emotional well-being of children and adolescents within a scholastic environment.
School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) developed from the combination of cognitive therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy, both of which grew out of cognitive psychology and behaviorism.
The information gained in this area is then often used in the applied field of clinical psychology.