A report on Clinical psychology

Many 18th c. treatments for psychological distress were based on pseudo-scientific ideas, such as Phrenology.
Cover of The Psychological Clinic, the first journal of clinical psychology, published in 1907 by Lightner Witmer
The University of Pennsylvania was the first to offer formal education in clinical psychology.
Fluoxetine hydrochloride, branded by Lilly as Prozac, is an antidepressant drug prescribed by physicians, psychiatrists, and some nurses.

Integration of social science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

- Clinical psychology
Many 18th c. treatments for psychological distress were based on pseudo-scientific ideas, such as Phrenology.

26 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.

Psychology

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Scientific study of mind and behavior.

Scientific study of mind and behavior.

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.
One of the dogs used in Pavlov's experiment with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation, preserved in the Pavlov Museum in Ryazan, Russia
False-color representations of cerebral fiber pathways affected, per Van Horn et al.
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction
Baddeley's model of working memory
The Müller–Lyer illusion. Psychologists make inferences about mental processes from shared phenomena such as optical illusions.
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 posited that humans have a hierarchy of needs, and it makes sense to fulfill the basic needs first (food, water etc.) before higher-order needs can be met.
Developmental psychologists would engage a child with a book and then make observations based on how the child interacts with the object.
An example of an item from a cognitive abilities test used in educational psychology.
Flowchart of four phases (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and data analysis) of a parallel randomized trial of two groups, modified from the CONSORT 2010 Statement
The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (L), who is actually an actor and confederate. The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments. Being separated from the subject, the confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level etc.
An EEG recording setup
Artificial neural network with two layers, an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
A rat undergoing a Morris water navigation test used in behavioral neuroscience to study the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory.
Phineas P. Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and is remembered for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior.

Some, but not all, clinical and counseling psychologists rely on symbolic interpretation.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909

Psychotherapy

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Use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909
Group therapy, Ukraine

The American Psychological Association adopted a resolution on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in 2012 based on a definition developed by American psychologist John C. Norcross: "Psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable".

The Two Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness

Mental health

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Mental health encompasses emotional, psychological, and social well-being.

Mental health encompasses emotional, psychological, and social well-being.

The Two Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness
A woman sitting on steps with a broken shopping cart full of papers to her left. Around her there is trash and the floor looks dirty and unsanitary.
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A woman towards the right and a man towards the left. Both sitting cross legged with their eyes closed. Their hands resting on their knees with their palms facing up.

There are also models as theoretical perspectives from personality, social, clinical, health and developmental psychology.

Health psychology

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Study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.

Study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.

Although its early beginnings can be traced to the field of clinical psychology, four different divisions within health psychology and one related field, occupational health psychology (OHP), have developed over time.

Psychologist

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Professional who practices psychology and studies mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior.

Professional who practices psychology and studies mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior.

South African psychologist Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela
The University of Pennsylvania was the first institution to offer formal education in clinical psychology in the U.S.

Applied fields include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, sport psychology, forensic psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology and school psychology.

Mental health professional

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Health care practitioner or social and human services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.

Health care practitioner or social and human services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.

As Dr. William Anthony, father of psychiatric rehabilitation, described, psychiatric nurses (RNMH, RMN, CPN), clinical psychologists (PsyD or PhD), clinical social workers (MSW or MSSW), mental health counselors (MA or MS), professional counselors, pharmacists, as well as many other professionals are often educated in "psychiatric fields" or conversely, educated in a generic community approach (e.g. human services programs or health and human services in 2013).

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Mental disorder

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Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional, usually a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist.

Lightner Witmer

Lightner Witmer

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American psychologist.

American psychologist.

Lightner Witmer

He introduced the term "clinical psychology" and is often credited with founding the field that it describes.

American Psychological Association

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Largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 133,000 members, including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

Largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 133,000 members, including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

Due to the dominance of clinical psychology in APA, several research-focused groups have broken away from the organization.

Karen Weaver is a Doctor of Psychology and former mayor of Flint, Michigan

Doctor of Psychology

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Professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for careers that apply scientific knowledge of psychology and deliver empirically based service to individuals, groups and organizations.

Professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for careers that apply scientific knowledge of psychology and deliver empirically based service to individuals, groups and organizations.

Karen Weaver is a Doctor of Psychology and former mayor of Flint, Michigan

Earning the degree was originally completed through one of two established training models for clinical psychology.