Many 18th c. treatments for psychological distress were based on pseudo-scientific ideas, such as Phrenology.
The Two Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness
Cover of The Psychological Clinic, the first journal of clinical psychology, published in 1907 by Lightner Witmer
A woman sitting on steps with a broken shopping cart full of papers to her left. Around her there is trash and the floor looks dirty and unsanitary.
The University of Pennsylvania was the first to offer formal education in clinical psychology.
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Fluoxetine hydrochloride, branded by Lilly as Prozac, is an antidepressant drug prescribed by physicians, psychiatrists, and some nurses.
A woman towards the right and a man towards the left. Both sitting cross legged with their eyes closed. Their hands resting on their knees with their palms facing up.

Clinical psychology is an integration of social science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

- Clinical psychology

A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or social and human services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.

- Mental health professional

In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession.

- Clinical psychology

As Dr. William Anthony, father of psychiatric rehabilitation, described, psychiatric nurses (RNMH, RMN, CPN), clinical psychologists (PsyD or PhD), clinical social workers (MSW or MSSW), mental health counselors (MA or MS), professional counselors, pharmacists, as well as many other professionals are often educated in "psychiatric fields" or conversely, educated in a generic community approach (e.g. human services programs or health and human services in 2013).

- Mental health professional

There are also models as theoretical perspectives from personality, social, clinical, health and developmental psychology.

- Mental health

Many mental health professionals are beginning to, or already understand, the importance of competency in religious diversity and spirituality.

- Mental health
Many 18th c. treatments for psychological distress were based on pseudo-scientific ideas, such as Phrenology.

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Overall

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Mental disorder

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Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
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Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional, usually a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist.

A mental disorder is one aspect of mental health.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909

Psychotherapy

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Use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909
Group therapy, Ukraine

Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills.

Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, mental health nurses, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors.

The American Psychological Association adopted a resolution on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in 2012 based on a definition developed by American psychologist John C. Norcross: "Psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable".