Clitic

encliticprocliticencliticscliticsWackernagel's Lawmesoclisisprocliticsclitic formpostcliticisationbound
A clitic (, backformed from Greek ἐγκλιτικός "leaning" or "enclitic") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.wikipedia
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Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
A clitic (, backformed from Greek ἐγκλιτικός "leaning" or "enclitic") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.

SPQR

People of RomeSenate and People of RomeRoman people
Populusque is compounded from the nominative noun Populus, "the People", and -que, an enclitic particle meaning "and" which connects the two nominative nouns.

Namaste

Anjali mudraAñjali MudrāNamaskar
Namaste (Namah + te, Devanagari: नम:+ ते = नमस्ते) is derived from Sanskrit and is a combination of the word namah and the second person dative pronoun in its enclitic form, te.

Lexical Integrity Hypothesis

Endoclitics defy the Lexical Integrity Hypothesis (or Lexicalist hypothesis) and so were long thought impossible.
This hypothesis is incompatible with endoclitics, claimed to exist e.g. in the Udi language.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
Each word usually has primary stress on its first syllable, except for enclitics (minor, monosyllabic, unstressed syllables).

English possessive

possessiveSaxon genitivedouble genitive
Some also regard the possessive marker, as in The Queen of England's crown as an enclitic, rather than a (phrasal) genitival inflection.
It is sometimes stated that the possessives represent a grammatical case, called the genitive or possessive case, though some linguists do not accept this view, regarding the 's ending, variously, as a phrasal affix, an edge affix, or a clitic, rather than as a case ending.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Swedish has two genders and is generally seen to have two grammatical cases – nominative and genitive (except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form) – although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case, or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive s, then seen as a clitic.

Udi language

UdiCaucasian AlbanianUdin
However, evidence from the Udi language suggests that they exist.
Some affixes behave as clitics.

Spanish object pronouns

Spanish object pronoun
For the Spanish object pronouns, for example:
They may be analyzed as clitics which cannot function independently, but take the conjugated form of the Spanish verb.

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
A clitic is pronounced like an affix, but plays a syntactic role at the phrase level.

Yes–no question

yes-no questionyes/no questionpolar question
In Latin, yes–no questions are indicated by the addition of a special grammatical particle or an enclitic.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
An affix syntactically and phonologically attaches to a base morpheme of a limited part of speech, such as a verb, to form a new word.

Arnold Zwicky

Arnold M. ZwickyZwickyZwicky, Arnold
Linguists Arnold Zwicky and Geoffrey Pullum argue, however, that the form has the properties of an affix rather than a syntactically independent clitic.
Zwicky has made notable contributions to fields of phonology (half-rhymes), morphology (realizational morphology, rules of referral), syntax (clitics, construction grammar), interfaces (the Principle of Phonology-Free Syntax), sociolinguistics and American dialectology.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English enclitics include the contracted versions of auxiliary verbs, as in I'm and we've.
Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic -s (also traditionally called a genitive suffix), or by the preposition of.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
Colloquial Portuguese of Brazil and Portugal and Spanish of the former Gran Colombia allow ser to be conjugated as a verbal clitic adverbial adjunct to emphasize the importance of the phrase compared to its context, or with the meaning of "really" or "in truth":
The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare el ('the', masculine singular definite article) with él ('he' or 'it'), or te ('you', object pronoun) with té ('tea'), de (preposition 'of') versus dé ('give' [formal imperative/third-person present subjunctive]), and se (reflexive pronoun) versus sé ('I know' or imperative 'be').

Jacob Wackernagel

Jakob WackernagelJacob ''(Jakob)'' WackernagelWackernagel
Many Indo-European languages, for example, obey Wackernagel's law (named after Jacob Wackernagel), which requires sentential clitics to appear in "second position", after the first syntactic phrase or the first stressed word in a clause:
He is best known among modern linguists and philologists for formulating Wackernagel's law, concerning the placement of unstressed words (enclitic sentential particles) in syntactic second position in Indo-European clauses (Wackernagel 1892 ).

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Colloquial Portuguese of Brazil and Portugal and Spanish of the former Gran Colombia allow ser to be conjugated as a verbal clitic adverbial adjunct to emphasize the importance of the phrase compared to its context, or with the meaning of "really" or "in truth":
The Portuguese language is the only Romance language that has preserved the clitic case mesoclisis: cf.

Gothic language

GothicVisigothicGoth.
Gothic has two clitic particles placed in the second position in a sentence, in accordance with Wackernagel's Law.

Danish language

DanishDanish-languageDansk
Only pronouns inflect for case, and the previous genitive case has become an enclitic.

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
That is, Modern English indicates a genitive construction with either the possessive clitic suffix "-", or a prepositional genitive construction such as "x of y".

Clitic doubling

doubled
In linguistics, clitic doubling, or pronominal reduplication is a phenomenon by which clitic pronouns appear in verb phrases together with the full noun phrases that they refer to (as opposed to the cases where such pronouns and full noun phrases are in complementary distribution).

Clitic climbing

Clitic climbing is a phenomenon first identified in Romance languages in which a pronominal object of an embedded infinitive appears attached to the matrix verb.

Polish language

PolishplPolish-language
These irregular stress patterns are explained by the fact that these endings are detachable clitics rather than true verbal inflections: for example, instead of kogo zobaczyliście? ('whom did you see?') it is possible to say kogoście zobaczyli? – here kogo retains its usual stress (first syllable) in spite of the attachment of the clitic.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
(In less formal pronunciations of Modern Standard Arabic, superheavy syllables are common at the end of words or before clitic suffixes such as 'us, our', due to the deletion of final short vowels.)