Clitic

encliticprocliticencliticscliticsmesoclisisprocliticsclitic formpostcliticisationWackernagel's Lawbound
A clitic (, backformed from Greek ἐγκλιτικός "leaning" or "enclitic") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.wikipedia
450 Related Articles

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
A clitic (, backformed from Greek ἐγκλιτικός "leaning" or "enclitic") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.

SPQR

People of RomeRoman peopleSenate and people of Rome
Latin: Senatus Populusque Romanus
Populusque is compounded from the nominative noun Populus, "the People", and -que, an enclitic particle meaning "and" which connects the two nominative nouns.

Namaste

namasténamaskarNamo
Sanskrit: Namaste < namaḥ + te, (Devanagari: नमः + ते = नमस्ते), with sandhi change namaḥ > namas.
Namaste (Namah + te, Devanagari: नम:+ ते = नमस्ते) is derived from Sanskrit and is a combination of the word namah and the second person dative pronoun in its enclitic form, te.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
Czech: Nevím, chtělo-li by se mi si to tam však také vyzkoušet.
Each word usually has primary stress on its first syllable, except for enclitics (minor, monosyllabic, unstressed syllables).

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Old Norse: The definite article was the enclitic -inn, -in, -itt (masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular), as in álfrinn "the elf", gjǫfin "the gift", and tréit "the tree", an abbreviated form of the independent pronoun hinn, cognate of the German pronoun jener. It was fully declined for gender, case and number. Since both the noun and enclitic were declined, this led to "double declension". The situation remains similar in modern Faroese and Icelandic, but in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, the enclitics have become endings. Old Norse had also some enclitics of personal pronouns that were attached to verbs. These were -sk (from sik), -mk (from mik), -k (from ek), and -ðu / -du / -tu (from þú). These could even be stacked up, e.g. "fásktu" (from Hávamál, stanza 116).
Swedish has two genders and is generally seen to have two grammatical cases – nominative and genitive (except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form) – although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case, or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive s, then seen as a clitic.

English possessive

possessivedouble genitive-
Some also regard the possessive marker, as in The Queen of England's crown as an enclitic, rather than a (phrasal) genitival inflection.
It is sometimes stated that the possessives represent a grammatical case, called the genitive or possessive case, though some linguists do not accept this view, regarding the 's ending, variously, as a phrasal affix, an edge affix, or a clitic, rather than as a case ending.

Udi language

UdiCaucasian AlbanianUdin
However, evidence from the Udi language suggests that they exist.
Some affixes behave as clitics.

Spanish object pronouns

For the Spanish object pronouns, for example:
They may be analyzed as clitics which cannot function independently, but take the conjugated form of the Spanish verb.

Affix

suffixaffixessuffixes
A clitic is pronounced like an affix, but plays a syntactic role at the phrase level.
Clitic

Yes–no question

yes-no questionyes/no questionpolar question
Gothic: Sentence clitics appear in second position in accordance with Wackernagel's Law, including -u (yes-no question), -uh "and", þan "then", ƕa "anything", for example ab-u þus silbin "of thyself?". Multiple clitics can be stacked up, and split a preverb from the rest of the verb if the preverb comes at the beginning of the clause, e.g. diz-uh-þan-sat ijōs "and then he seized them (fem.)", ga-u-ƕa-sēƕi "whether he saw anything".
In Latin, yes–no questions are indicated by the addition of a special grammatical particle or an enclitic.

Lexical Integrity Hypothesis

Endoclitics defy the Lexical Integrity Hypothesis (or Lexicalist hypothesis) and so were long thought impossible.
This hypothesis is incompatible with endoclitics, claimed to exist e.g. in the Udi language.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
An affix syntactically and phonologically attaches to a base morpheme of a limited part of speech, such as a verb, to form a new word.
clitics

Tamil language

TamilTamil-languageta
Tamil: idhu en poo = இது என் பூ (This is my flower). With enclitic vē, which indicates certainty, this sentence becomes
Tamil has three simple tenses—past, present, and future—indicated by the suffixes, as well as a series of perfects indicated by compound suffixes. Mood is implicit in Tamil, and is normally reflected by the same morphemes which mark tense categories. Tamil verbs also mark evidentiality, through the addition of the hearsay clitic . Verb inflection is shown below using example aḻintukkoṇṭiruntēṉ; ; "(I) was being destroyed".

Arnold Zwicky

ZwickyZwicky, ArnoldZwicky, Arnold M.
Linguists Arnold Zwicky and Geoffrey Pullum argue, however, that the form has the properties of an affix rather than a syntactically independent clitic.
Zwicky has made notable contributions to fields of phonology (half-rhymes), morphology (realizational morphology, rules of referral), syntax (clitics, construction grammar), interfaces (the Principle of Phonology-Free Syntax), sociolinguistics and American dialectology.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
Colloquial Portuguese of Brazil and Portugal and Spanish of the former Gran Colombia allow ser to be conjugated as a verbal clitic adverbial adjunct to emphasize the importance of the phrase compared to its context, or with the meaning of "really" or "in truth":
Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the fourth-to-last syllable) occurs rarely, only on verbs with clitic pronouns attached (guardándoselos 'saving them for him/her/them/you').

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English enclitics include the contracted versions of auxiliary verbs, as in I'm and we've.
Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic -s (also traditionally called a genitive suffix), or by the preposition of.

Jacob Wackernagel

Jacob ''(Jakob)'' WackernagelWackernagelWackernagel, Jacob
Many Indo-European languages, for example, obey Wackernagel's law (named after Jacob Wackernagel), which requires clitics to appear in "second position", after the first syntactic phrase or the first stressed word in a clause:
He is best known among modern linguists and philologists for formulating Wackernagel's law, concerning the placement of unstressed words (enclitic sentential particles) in syntactic second position in Indo-European clauses (Wackernagel 1892 ).

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Colloquial Portuguese of Brazil and Portugal and Spanish of the former Gran Colombia allow ser to be conjugated as a verbal clitic adverbial adjunct to emphasize the importance of the phrase compared to its context, or with the meaning of "really" or "in truth":
The Portuguese language is the only Romance language that has preserved the clitic case mesoclisis: cf. dar-te-ei (I'll give thee), amar-te-ei (I'll love you), contactá-los-ei (I'll contact them).

Danish language

DanishDanish-languageda
Old Norse: The definite article was the enclitic -inn, -in, -itt (masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular), as in álfrinn "the elf", gjǫfin "the gift", and tréit "the tree", an abbreviated form of the independent pronoun hinn, cognate of the German pronoun jener. It was fully declined for gender, case and number. Since both the noun and enclitic were declined, this led to "double declension". The situation remains similar in modern Faroese and Icelandic, but in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, the enclitics have become endings. Old Norse had also some enclitics of personal pronouns that were attached to verbs. These were -sk (from sik), -mk (from mik), -k (from ek), and -ðu / -du / -tu (from þú). These could even be stacked up, e.g. "fásktu" (from Hávamál, stanza 116).
Only pronouns inflect for case, and the previous genitive case has become an enclitic.

Gothic language

GothicVisigothicGoth.
Gothic: Sentence clitics appear in second position in accordance with Wackernagel's Law, including -u (yes-no question), -uh "and", þan "then", ƕa "anything", for example ab-u þus silbin "of thyself?". Multiple clitics can be stacked up, and split a preverb from the rest of the verb if the preverb comes at the beginning of the clause, e.g. diz-uh-þan-sat ijōs "and then he seized them (fem.)", ga-u-ƕa-sēƕi "whether he saw anything".
Gothic has two clitic particles placed in the second position in a sentence, in accordance with Wackernagel's Law.

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
Japanese: all particles, such as the genitive postposition の (no) and the topic marker は (wa).
That is, Modern English indicates a genitive construction with either the possessive clitic suffix "-", or a prepositional genitive construction such as "x of y". However, some irregular English pronouns do have possessive forms which may more commonly be described as genitive (see English possessive).

Clitic doubling

doubled
Clitic doubling
In linguistics, clitic doubling, or pronominal reduplication is a phenomenon by which clitic pronouns appear in verb phrases together with the full noun phrases that they refer to (as opposed to the cases where such pronouns and full noun phrases are in complementary distribution).

Clitic climbing

Clitic climbing
Clitic climbing is a phenomenon first identified in Romance languages in which a pronominal object of an embedded infinitive appears attached to the matrix verb.

Polish language

Polishplpol.
Polish: -by (conditional mood particle), się (reflexive, also modifies meaning of certain verbs), no and -że (emphasis), -m, -ś, -śmy, -ście (personal auxiliary), mi, ci, cię, go, mu &c. (unstressed personal pronouns in oblique cases)
According to prescriptive authorities, the same applies to the first and second person plural past tense endings -śmy, -ście, although this rule is often ignored in colloquial speech (so zrobiliśmy 'we did' should be prescriptively stressed on the second syllable, although in practice it is commonly stressed on the third as zrobiliśmy). These irregular stress patterns are explained by the fact that these endings are detachable clitics rather than true verbal inflections: for example, instead of kogo zobaczyliście? ('whom did you see?') it is possible to say kogoście zobaczyli? – here kogo retains its usual stress (first syllable) in spite of the attachment of the clitic.

Arabic

Arabic-languageArabArabic language
Arabic: Suffixes standing for direct object pronouns and/or indirect object pronouns (as found in Indo-European languages) are suffixed to verbs, possessive determiners are suffixed to nouns, and pronouns are suffixed to particles.
Conversion of separate words lī 'to me', laka 'to you', etc. into indirect-object clitic suffixes.