Clockwork

clockwork motorclockworksClockwork Dollmechanicalmechanical clockwind-upwind-up dolls
Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clocks (where it is also called the movement) or other mechanisms that work similarly, using a complex series of gears.wikipedia
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Mainspring

springspring motorspring-wound
A clockwork mechanism is often powered by a clockwork motor consisting of a mainspring, a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon. Often power for the device is stored within it, via a winding device that applies mechanical stress to an energy-storage mechanism such as a mainspring, thus involving some form of escapement; in other cases, hand power may be utilized.
A mainspring is a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon—commonly spring steel—used as a power source in mechanical watches, some clocks, and other clockwork mechanisms.

Movement (clockwork)

movementmovementswatch movement
Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clocks (where it is also called the movement) or other mechanisms that work similarly, using a complex series of gears.
The term originated with mechanical timepieces, whose clockwork movements are made of many moving parts.

Timer

timerstiming devicesoftware timer
The adjectives wind-up and spring-powered refer to mainspring-powered clockwork devices, which include clocks and watches, kitchen timers, music boxes, and wind-up toys.
Mechanical timers use clockwork to measure time.

Antikythera mechanism

Orrery
The earliest known example of a clockwork mechanism is the Antikythera mechanism, a first-century BC geared analogue computer, somewhat astrolabe-like, for calculating astronomical positions and eclipses, recovered from a Greek shipwreck.
It is a complex clockwork mechanism composed of at least 30 meshing bronze gears.

Wind-up toy

wind-upwind upwind-up doll
The adjectives wind-up and spring-powered refer to mainspring-powered clockwork devices, which include clocks and watches, kitchen timers, music boxes, and wind-up toys. Wind-up toys – often as a simple mechanical motor, or to create automata. These may be either key-wound, or a simpler pullback motor.
A wind-up toy is a toy powered by a clockwork motor.

Music box

musical boxmusic boxesMechanical music box
The adjectives wind-up and spring-powered refer to mainspring-powered clockwork devices, which include clocks and watches, kitchen timers, music boxes, and wind-up toys.
They were usually powered by clockwork and originally produced by artisan watchmakers.

Escapement

detent escapementCross-beat escapementduplex escapements
Often power for the device is stored within it, via a winding device that applies mechanical stress to an energy-storage mechanism such as a mainspring, thus involving some form of escapement; in other cases, hand power may be utilized.
Historically, a liquid-driven escapement was used for a washstand design in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world, particularly Ptolemaic Egypt, while liquid-driven escapements were applied to clockworks beginning in Tang dynasty China and culminating during the Song dynasty.

Pullback motor

pullbackpull-back motorpull toy
Wind-up toys – often as a simple mechanical motor, or to create automata. These may be either key-wound, or a simpler pullback motor.
A pullback motor (also pull back or pull-back) is a simple clockwork motor used in toy cars.

Shutter (photography)

shutterleaf shuttershutters
Most leaf shutters use a clockwork mechanism not unlike that of wristwatches to time the opening and closing of the shutter blades.
These were originally pneumatic (Compound shutter) or clockwork, but since the late twentieth century are mostly electronic.

Orrery

orreriesorrary(sic)orrerie
Astronomical models, such as orreries whose history spans hundreds of years.
They are typically driven by a clockwork mechanism with a globe representing the Sun at the centre, and with a planet at the end of each of the arms.

Friedrich von Knauss

Friedrich von Knauss
Friedrich von Knaus(s) (February 7 or April 7, 1724 - August 14, 1789), was a German watchmaker and inventor who built clockwork mechanisms which could, in a simple way, play musical instruments, write short phrases, or conduct other individual, specialized tasks.

Clockwork universe

clockwork theory
Clockwork universe theory
In the history of science, the clockwork universe compares the universe to a mechanical clock.

Automaton

automataautomaticautomatons
Wind-up toys – often as a simple mechanical motor, or to create automata. These may be either key-wound, or a simpler pullback motor.
According to Manuel de Landa, "he put together his armies as a well-oiled clockwork mechanism whose components were robot-like warriors".

Clock

clockstimepiecemechanical clock
Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clocks (where it is also called the movement) or other mechanisms that work similarly, using a complex series of gears.

Gear

single reduction geargearsspur gear
Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clocks (where it is also called the movement) or other mechanisms that work similarly, using a complex series of gears.

Torsion spring

torsion balancetorsion pendulumtorsion
A clockwork mechanism is often powered by a clockwork motor consisting of a mainspring, a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon.

Ratchet (device)

ratchetratchetingpawl
Energy is stored in the mainspring manually by winding it up, turning a key attached to a ratchet which twists the mainspring tighter.

Astrolabe

astrolabesAstrolabastrelabie
The earliest known example of a clockwork mechanism is the Antikythera mechanism, a first-century BC geared analogue computer, somewhat astrolabe-like, for calculating astronomical positions and eclipses, recovered from a Greek shipwreck.

Islam

MuslimMuslimsIslamic
At some point, this level of sophistication in clockwork technology was lost or forgotten in Europe, and only returned when brought from the Islamic world after the Crusades, along with other knowledge leading to the Renaissance.

Crusades

crusadeCrusaderCrusaders
At some point, this level of sophistication in clockwork technology was lost or forgotten in Europe, and only returned when brought from the Islamic world after the Crusades, along with other knowledge leading to the Renaissance.

Renaissance

the Renaissanceearly RenaissanceRenaissance Europe
At some point, this level of sophistication in clockwork technology was lost or forgotten in Europe, and only returned when brought from the Islamic world after the Crusades, along with other knowledge leading to the Renaissance.

Judaism

JewishJewsJew
For example, in Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as king when he ascended it; upon sitting down an eagle would place a crown upon his head, and a dove would bring him a Torah scroll.

Solomon

King SolomonSalomonSolomonic magic
For example, in Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as king when he ascended it; upon sitting down an eagle would place a crown upon his head, and a dove would bring him a Torah scroll.

Torah

LawPentateuchMosaic Law
For example, in Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as king when he ascended it; upon sitting down an eagle would place a crown upon his head, and a dove would bring him a Torah scroll.

History of China

Chineseimperial Chinaancient China
In ancient China, a curious account of automation is found in the Lie Zi text, written in the 3rd century BC. Within it there is a description of a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (1023-957 BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'.