Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.wikipedia
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It is a tranquilizer of the benzodiazepine class.
In a hospital environment, intravenous clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam are first-line choices.
panicpanic disorderspanic disorde
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Clonazepam, an anticonvulsant benzodiazepine with a long half-life, has been successful in keeping the condition under control.
lithiumlithium saltslithium salt
Gabapentin and clonazepam are also indicated as antipanic medications during the childbearing years and during pregnancy.
RocheHoffmann–La RocheHoffman-La Roche
Clonazepam was patented in 1960 and went on sale in 1975 in the United States from Roche.
benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
Long-term use may result in tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms if stopped abruptly.
Benzodiazepines with a half-life of more than 24 hours include chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, chlorazepinic acid, ketazolam, medazepam, nordazepam, and prazepam.
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.
super-refractory status epilepticusnonconvulsive status epilepticusprolonged seizures
Clonazepam has been found to be effective in the acute control of non-convulsive status epilepticus; however, the benefits tended to be transient in many people, and the addition of phenytoin for lasting control was required in these patients.
In several countries outside North America, intravenous clonazepam is regarded as the drug of first choice.
Clonazepam increases the levels of primidone and phenobarbital.
Other pharmacological agents include alprazolam, clonazepam, atenolol, sotalol, nadolol, clozapine, nimodipine, and botulinum toxin A.
Besides ensuring the sleep environment is a safe place, pharmacologic therapy using melatonin and clonazepam is also common as a treatment for RBD, even though might not eliminate all abnormal behaviours.
myoclonicmyoclonic jerkmyoclonic jerks
It is also approved for treatment of typical and atypical absences, infantile myoclonic, myoclonic, and akinetic seizures.
Some drugs being studied in different combinations include clonazepam, sodium valproate, piracetam, and primidone.
restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam or clonazepam, are not generally recommended, and their effectiveness is unknown.
anxiety disordersanxietynervous disorder
Buspirone and pregabalin are second-line treatments for people who do not respond to SSRIs or SNRIs; there is also evidence that benzodiazepines including diazepam and clonazepam are effective but have fallen out of favor due to the risk of dependence and abuse.
clorazepate dipotassiumTranxeneClorazepic Acid
A subgroup of people with treatment resistant epilepsy may benefit from long-term use of clonazepam; the benzodiazepine clorazepate may be an alternative due to its slow onset of tolerance.
Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, bromazepam and flurazepam.
rigidityspastic paralysismuscle spasticity
Medical interventions may include such medications as baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene, or clonazepam.
REM sleep behavior disorderREM behavior disorderRapid eye movement behavior disorder
Melatonin and clonazepam are the most frequently used, and are comparably effective, but melatonin offers a safer alternative, because clonazepam can produce undesirable side effects.
teeth grindinggrinding of teethsleep bruxism
Specific drugs that have been studied in sleep bruxism are clonazepam, levodopa, amitriptyline, bromocriptine, pergolide, clonidine, propranolol, and l-tryptophan, with some showing no effect and others appear to have promising initial results; however, it has been suggested that further safety testing is required before any evidence-based clinical recommendations can be made.
manicmanic episodemanic episodes
In some cases, long-acting benzodiazepines, particularly clonazepam, are used after other options are exhausted.
Clonazepam increases the levels of primidone and phenobarbital. Of anticonvulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital. Combined use of clonazepam with certain antidepressants, anticonvulsants (such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine), sedative antihistamines, opiates, and antipsychotics, nonbenzodiazepines (such as zolpidem), and alcohol may result in enhanced sedative effects.
Among anti-convulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital.
Combined use of clonazepam with certain antidepressants, anticonvulsants (such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine), sedative antihistamines, opiates, and antipsychotics, nonbenzodiazepines (such as zolpidem), and alcohol may result in enhanced sedative effects. Clonazepam enhances the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the central nervous system to give its anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant, and anxiolytic effects.
hereditary or essential startle syndrome
The most commonly effective treatment is clonazepam, which leads to the increased efficacy of another inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA.
The combination of clonazepam and certain barbiturates (for example, amobarbital), at prescribed doses has resulted in a synergistic potentiation of the effects of each drug, leading to serious respiratory depression.
Clonazepam is a chlorinated derivative of nitrazepam.
It has been found to be more effective than clonazepam in the treatment of West syndrome, which is an age-dependent epilepsy, affecting the very young.
Clonazepam enhances the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the central nervous system to give its anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant, and anxiolytic effects.
Both the Canadian and American medical associations then suggest the use of a strong but long lasting benzodiazepine such as clonazepam and an antidepressant, usually Prozac for its effectiveness.
The safety profile of clonazepam during pregnancy is less clear than that of other benzodiazepines, and if benzodiazepines are indicated during pregnancy, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam may be a safer choice.
Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate.
cytochrome P450 3A43A4cytochrome P450-3A4
Clonazepam is metabolized extensively via nitroreduction by cytochrome P450 enzymes, including CYP3A4.