Closed captioning

closed captionsclosed captioncaptioningclosed captionedcaptionsclosed-captionedclosed-captioningopen captionedopen captionscaptioned
Closed captioning (CC) and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information.wikipedia
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Subtitles

subtitlesubtitledsubtitling
Closed captioning (CC) and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information.
Television subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing is also referred to as closed captioning in some countries.

Teletext

digital teletextVideotextbroadcast Teletext
Their presence is referenced on screen by notation which says "Subtitles", or previously "Subtitles 888" or just "888" (the latter two are in reference to the conventional teletext channel for captions), which is why the term subtitle is also used to refer to the Ceefax-based Teletext encoding that is used with PAL-compatible video.
Also, paged subtitle (or closed captioning) information was transmitted using the same system.

CaptionMax

Major US producers of captions are WGBH-TV, VITAC, CaptionMax and the National Captioning Institute.
CaptionMax is one of North America's largest closed captioning and media accessibility companies.

VITAC

Major US producers of captions are WGBH-TV, VITAC, CaptionMax and the National Captioning Institute.
VITAC is the United States’ largest closed captioning company.

National Captioning Institute

Major US producers of captions are WGBH-TV, VITAC, CaptionMax and the National Captioning Institute. Real-time captioning, a process for captioning live broadcasts, was developed by the National Captioning Institute in 1982.
The National Captioning Institute, Inc. (NCI) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that provides real-time and off-line closed captioning, subtitling and translation, described video, web captioning, and Spanish captioning for television and films.

ABC World News Tonight

World News TonightABC World NewsABC Evening News
WGBH began open captioning of the programs Zoom, ABC World News Tonight, and Once Upon a Classic shortly thereafter.
Starting in 1973, before the advent of closed captioning, PBS began airing an open captioned version of the ABC Evening News that was distributed to various public television stations throughout the U.S, airing mostly in late-night timeslots five hours after the original ABC broadcast.

WGBH-TV

WGBHWGBH BostonWGBH-Boston
Major US producers of captions are WGBH-TV, VITAC, CaptionMax and the National Captioning Institute. WGBH began open captioning of the programs Zoom, ABC World News Tonight, and Once Upon a Classic shortly thereafter. Probably the best known closed captioning option for film theaters is the Rear Window Captioning System from the National Center for Accessible Media.
The unit originated with the founding of The Caption Center in 1972, which invented the method of closed captioning to improve access to television programs for the hearing impaired (The French Chef was the first program to offer captioning provided by the unit), and created the Rear Window Captioning System for films.

Real-time text

real-timereal time textreal-time texting
Live captioning is also a form of real-time text.
Technologies include TDD/TTY devices for the deaf, live captioning for TV, Text over IP (ToIP), some types of instant messaging, captioning for telephony/video teleconferencing, telecommunications relay services including ip-relay, transcription services including Remote CART, TypeWell, collaborative text editing, streaming text applications, next-generation 9-1-1/1-1-2 emergency service.

Stenotype

stenographstenotypistshorthand machines
For live programs, spoken words comprising the television program's soundtrack are transcribed by a human operator (a speech-to-text reporter) using stenotype or stenomask type of machines, whose phonetic output is instantly translated into text by a computer and displayed on the screen.
In order to pass the United States Registered Professional Reporter test, a trained court reporter or closed captioner must write speeds of approximately 180, 200, and 225 words per minute (wpm) at very high accuracy in the categories of literary, jury charge, and testimony, respectively.

ATSC standards

ATSCdigitalATSC standard
The Act requires, in part, for ATSC-decoding set-top box remotes to have a button to turn on or off the closed captioning in the output signal. For ATSC (digital television) programming, three streams are encoded in the video: two are backward compatible "line 21" captions, and the third is a set of up to 63 additional caption streams encoded in EIA-708 format.
As with other systems, ATSC depends on numerous interwoven standards, e.g. the EIA-708 standard for digital closed captioning, leading to variations in implementation.

NTSC

analogNTSC-M30p
For all types of NTSC programming, captions are "encoded" into line 21 of the vertical blanking interval - a part of the TV picture that sits just above the visible portion and is usually unseen.
However, some of these lines may now contain other data such as closed captioning and vertical interval timecode (VITC).

CEA-708

EIA-708
For ATSC (digital television) programming, three streams are encoded in the video: two are backward compatible "line 21" captions, and the third is a set of up to 63 additional caption streams encoded in EIA-708 format.
CEA-708 is the standard for closed captioning for ATSC digital television (DTV) streams in the United States and Canada.

Speech recognition

voice recognitionautomatic speech recognitionvoice command
Improvements in speech recognition technology means that live captioning may be fully or partially automated.

Rear Window Captioning System

Rear Window Technology
Probably the best known closed captioning option for film theaters is the Rear Window Captioning System from the National Center for Accessible Media.
The Rear Window captioning system (RWC) is a method for presenting, through captions, a transcript of the audio portion of a film in theatres for deaf and hard-of-hearing people.

Court reporter

court reportingcourt stenographercourt reporters
In real-time captioning, court reporters trained to write at speeds of over 225 words per minute to give viewers instantaneous access to live news, sports, and entertainment.
Court reporters are also employed by television producers and stations to provide real-time closed captioning of live programs for the hearing-impaired.

Set-top box

set top boxset-top boxesSTB
The "TV Guardian", a television set-top box, is available to parents who wish to censor offensive language of programs—the video signal is fed into the box and if it detects an offensive word in the captioning, the audio signal is bleeped or muted for that period of time.
Set-top boxes were also made to enable closed captioning on older sets in North America, before this became a mandated inclusion in new TV sets.

Media Access Australia

Australian Caption Centre
The ACC, now known as Media Access Australia, sold its commercial captioning division to Red Bee Media in December 2005.
These solutions include audio description, captioning and mainstream new media technologies.

Speech-to-text reporter

PalantypePalantypist
For live programs, spoken words comprising the television program's soundtrack are transcribed by a human operator (a speech-to-text reporter) using stenotype or stenomask type of machines, whose phonetic output is instantly translated into text by a computer and displayed on the screen.

SCART

PéritelRGB SCARTSCART RGB
Blu-ray disc media cannot carry any VBI data such as Line 21 closed captioning due to the design of DVI-based High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) specifications that was only extended for synchronized digital audio replacing older analog standards, such as VGA, S-Video, component video, and SCART.
In order to implement captioning or subtitles, a SCART set-top box does not have to process and send back a complete new video signal, which would require full decoding and re-encoding of the color information, a signal-degrading and costly process, especially given the presence of different standards in Europe.

DVD Player (Mac OS)

DVD PlayerApple DVD PlayerDVD Player (Apple)
Apple's DVD Player does not have the ability to read and decode Line 21 caption data which are recorded on a DVD made from an over-the-air broadcast.
It supports all the standard DVD features such as multiple audio, video & subtitle tracks as well as Dolby Digital 5.1 passthrough, DVD access URLs and closed captions.

Telemundo

TELEnglish subtitlesTelemundo Internacional
Many Spanish television networks such as Univision and Telemundo, for example, provides English subtitles for many of its Spanish programs in CC3.
Telemundo provides English subtitles via closed captioning primarily on weekdays from 7:00 to 11:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific Time, during the network's prime time lineup.

HDMI

High-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI 1.4HDMI 2.0
Blu-ray disc media cannot carry any VBI data such as Line 21 closed captioning due to the design of DVI-based High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) specifications that was only extended for synchronized digital audio replacing older analog standards, such as VGA, S-Video, component video, and SCART.
The HDMI standard was not designed to pass closed caption data (for example, subtitles) to the television for decoding.

Hearing loss

deafdeafnesshearing impairment
HTML5 defines subtitles as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue ... when sound is available but not understood" by the viewer (for example, dialogue in a foreign language) and captions as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue, sound effects, relevant musical cues, and other relevant audio information ... when sound is unavailable or not clearly audible" (for example, when audio is muted or the viewer is deaf or hard of hearing).
Some management options include hearing aids, cochlear implants, assistive technology, and closed captioning.

Timed text

Timed-Text
Flash video also supports captions using the Distribution Exchange profile (DFXP) of W3C timed text format.
Typical applications of timed text are the real-time subtitling of foreign-language movies on the Web, captioning for people lacking audio devices or having hearing impairments, karaoke, scrolling news items or teleprompter applications.

Extended Data Services

XDS
Even field 2 can have five additional data channels: two separate synchronized captions (CC3, CC4) with caption related text (T3, T4), and Extended Data Services (XDS) for Now/Next EPG details.
NAS is a one-way communication system used by ABC to inform and alert their local affiliate stations across the US of information regarding ABC's network programming (such as program timings & changes, news special report information, etc.), using a special decoder manufactured for ABC by EEG Enterprises, a manufacturer of related equipment for the TV broadcast industry such as closed captioning and general-purpose XDS encoders.