A report on Rain and Cloud

Hard rain on a roof
Rain falling on a field, in southern Estonia
Stratocumuliform cloudscape
Streets in Tampere, Finland watered by night rain.
Tropospheric cloud classification by altitude of occurrence: Multi-level and vertical genus-types not limited to a single altitude level include nimbostratus, cumulonimbus, and some of the larger cumulus species.
The shape of rain drops depending upon their size
Cumulus humilis clouds in May
Black Rain Clouds
Windy evening twilight enhanced by the Sun's angle, can visually mimic a tornado resulting from orographic lift
A raindrop on a leaf
Nimbostratus cloud producing precipitation
Convective precipitation
Cirrus fibratus clouds in March
Orographic precipitation
Stratocumulus over Orange County.
Rainfall distribution by month in Cairns showing the extent of the wet season at that location
Stratocumulus cloud
Image of Atlanta, US showing temperature distribution, with blue showing cool temperatures, red warm, and hot areas appearing white.
Cumulus humilis clouds
Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2020 compared to the 1951–1980 average. Source: NASA
Cumulonimbus cloud over the Gulf of Mexico in Galveston, Texas
Band of thunderstorms seen on a weather radar display
High cirrus upper-left merging into cirrostratus and some cirrocumulus upper right
Sources of acid rain
A large field of cirrocumulus
Updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
Sunrise scene giving a shine to an altocumulus stratiformis perlucidus cloud (see also 'species and varieties')
Standard rain gauge
Altostratus translucidus near top of photo merging into altostratus opacus near bottom
Twenty-four-hour rainfall accumulation on the Val d'Irène radar in Eastern Canada. Zones without data in the east and southwest are caused by beam blocking from mountains. (Source: Environment Canada)
Cumulus humilis clouds over Jakarta, Indonesia
Example of a five-day rainfall forecast from the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus over Galapagos, Tortuga Bay (see also 'species and varieties')
Rainfall estimates for southern Japan and the surrounding region from July 20–27, 2009.
Stratus nebulosus translucidus
A rain dance being performed in Harar, Ethiopia
Deep multi-level nimbostratus cloud covering the sky with a scattered layer of low stratus fractus pannus (see also 'species' and 'supplementary features' sections)
Rain, depicted in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
Cumulus humilis and cumulus mediocris with stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus in the foreground (see also 'species and varieties')
Largest deserts
Towering vertical cumulus congestus embedded within a layer of cumulus mediocris: Higher layer of stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus.
Isolated towering vertical desert shower
Progressive evolution of a single cell thunderstorm
Long-term mean precipitation by month
Isolated cumulonimbus cloud over the Mojave Desert, releasing a heavy shower
Altocumulus lenticularis forming over mountains in Wyoming with lower layer of cumulus mediocris and higher layer of cirrus spissatus
Example of a castellanus cloud formation
Cumulus mediocris cloud, about to turn into a cumulus congestus
A layer of stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus hiding the setting sun with a background layer of stratocumulus cumulogenitus resembling distant mountains.
Cirrus fibratus radiatus over ESO's La Silla Observatory
Altocumulus stratiformis duplicatus at sunrise in the California Mojave Desert, USA (higher layer orange to white; lower layer grey)
Cumulus partly spreading into stratocumulus cumulogenitus over the port of Piraeus in Greece
Cumulonimbus mother cloud dissipating into stratocumulus cumulonimbogenitus at dusk
Cirrus fibratus intortus formed into a Kármán vortex street at evening twilight
Global cloud cover, averaged over the month of October 2009. NASA composite satellite image.
Lenticular nacreous clouds over Antarctica
Noctilucent cloud over Estonia
Joshua Passing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant (1800) by Benjamin West, showing Yahweh leading the Israelites through the desert in the form of a pillar of cloud, as described in
Stratocumulus stratiformis and small castellanus made orange by the sun rising
An occurrence of cloud iridescence with altocumulus volutus and cirrocumulus stratiformis
Sunset reflecting shades of pink onto grey stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus (becoming perlucidus in the background)
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus before sunset. Bangalore, India.
Late-summer rainstorm in Denmark. Nearly black color of base indicates main cloud in foreground probably cumulonimbus.
Particles in the atmosphere and the sun's angle enhance colors of stratocumulus cumulogenitus at evening twilight
Total cloud cover fraction averaged over the years 1981-2010 from the CHELSA-BIOCLIM+ data set

How much water vapor a parcel of air can contain before it becomes saturated (100% relative humidity) and forms into a cloud (a group of visible and tiny water and ice particles suspended above the Earth's surface) depends on its temperature.

- Rain

This genus type is a heavy, towering, cumulonimbiform mass of free-convective cloud with a dark-grey to nearly black base and a very high top in the form of a mountain or huge tower. Cumulonimbus can produce thunderstorms, local very heavy downpours of rain that may cause flash floods, and a variety of types of lightning including cloud-to-ground that can cause wildfires. Other convective severe weather may or may not be associated with thunderstorms and include heavy snow showers, hail, strong wind shear, downbursts, and tornadoes. Of all these possible cumulonimbus-related events, lightning is the only one of these that requires a thunderstorm to be taking place since it is the lightning that creates the thunder. Cumulonimbus clouds can form in unstable airmass conditions, but tend to be more concentrated and intense when they are associated with unstable cold fronts.

- Cloud
Hard rain on a roof

6 related topics with Alpha


Cumulonimbus calvus cloud in Monterrey, Mexico.

Cumulonimbus cloud

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Cumulonimbus calvus cloud in Monterrey, Mexico.
Partial view of a cumulonimbus cloud, possibly an arcus cloud.
Pyrocumulonimbus with pileus
Stages of a cumulonimbus cloud's life.
Transformation from a mature cumulus congestus cloud to a mature cumulonimbus incus
Cumulonimbus calvus
A clearly developed cumulonimbus fibrous-edged top capillatus
A freeze-frame of a Cumulonimbus cloud in the distance exposing a flash of lightning
Arcus cloud (shelf cloud) leading a thunderstorm
A cap (pileus) atop a congestus
Incus with a velum edge
Mammatocumulus with drooping pouches
A funnel cloud (tuba) over the Netherlands
Flanking line in front of a strong thunderstorm
An overshooting top is a dome of clouds atop a cumulonimbus
Cumulonimbus calvus against sunlight with rain falling beneath it as a rain shaft.
Rain evaporating before reaching the ground (virga)

Cumulonimbus (from Latin cumulus, "heaped" and nimbus, "rainstorm") is a dense, towering vertical cloud, typically forming from water vapor condensing in the lower troposphere that builds upward carried by powerful buoyant air currents.

Rain: precipitation that reaches the ground as liquid, often in a precipitation shaft.

Nimbostratus virga


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Nimbostratus virga
Virga falling from Altocumulus
Virga during a sunset
Funnel cloud-esque virga

In meteorology, a virga, also called a dry storm, is an observable streak or shaft of precipitation falling from a cloud that evaporates or sublimates before reaching the ground.

Virgae can cause varying weather effects, because as rain is changed from liquid to vapor form, it removes significant amounts of heat from the air due to water's high heat of vaporization.

Water cycle

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Biogeochemical cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

Biogeochemical cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

Time-mean precipitation and evaporation as a function of latitude as simulated by an aqua-planet version of an atmospheric GCM (GFDL's AM2.1) with a homogeneous “slab-ocean” lower boundary (saturated surface with small heat capacity), forced by annual mean insolation.
Global map of annual mean evaporation minus precipitation by latitude-longitude
Relationship between impervious surfaces and surface runoff
Diagram of the water cycle
Natural water cycle

A huge concentration of these droplets over a large area in the atmosphere become visible as cloud, while condensation near ground level is referred to as fog.

Precipitation: Condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, graupel, and sleet. Approximately 505000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398000 km3 of it over the oceans. The rain on land contains 107000 km3 of water per year and a snowing only 1000 km3. 78% of global precipitation occurs over the ocean.

Different air masses that affect North America, as well as other continents, tend to be separated by frontal boundaries.

Warm front

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Density discontinuity located at the leading edge of a homogeneous warm air mass, and is typically located on the equator-facing edge of an isotherm gradient.

Density discontinuity located at the leading edge of a homogeneous warm air mass, and is typically located on the equator-facing edge of an isotherm gradient.

Different air masses that affect North America, as well as other continents, tend to be separated by frontal boundaries.
A surface weather analysis for the United States on October 21, 2006. Note the warm front in the northwest Gulf of Mexico.

As it cools, any water vapor that is present will condense and form extensive cloud cover.

If the air mass is relatively stable, rainfall will increase until the front reaches the location, at which time the clouds can extend all the way to the earth’s surface as fog.

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)


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Seventh planet from the Sun.

Seventh planet from the Sun.

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
Simulated Earth view of Uranus from 1986 to 2030, from southern summer solstice in 1986 to equinox in 2007 and northern summer solstice in 2028.
Size comparison of Earth and Uranus
Diagram of the interior of Uranus
Uranus's atmosphere taken during the Outer Planet Atmosphere Legacy (OPAL) program.
Aurorae on Uranus taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) installed on Hubble.
The magnetic field of Uranus
(animated; 25 March 2020)
The first dark spot observed on Uranus. Image obtained by the HST ACS in 2006.
Uranus in 2005. Rings, southern collar and a bright cloud in the northern hemisphere are visible (HST ACS image).
Major moons of Uranus in order of increasing distance (left to right), at their proper relative sizes and albedos (collage of Voyager 2 photographs)
Uranus's aurorae against its equatorial rings, imaged by the Hubble telescope. Unlike the aurorae of Earth and Jupiter, those of Uranus are not in line with its poles, due to its lopsided magnetic field.
Crescent Uranus as imaged by Voyager 2 while en route to Neptune

It has the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K, and has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds.

Scientists also believe that rainfalls of solid diamonds occur on Uranus, as well as on Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune.

Antu (goddess)

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Babylonian goddess.

Babylonian goddess.

According to the Akkadian pantheon, clouds were Antum's breasts and that rain was her breast milk.