Cloud computing

cloudcloud-basedcloud servicescloud serviceprivate cloudthe cloudpublic cloudhybrid cloudcloud technologycloud based
Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.wikipedia
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Amazon (company)

AmazonAmazon.comAmazon.co.uk
While the term "cloud computing" was popularized with Amazon.com releasing its Elastic Compute Cloud product in 2006, references to the phrase "cloud computing" appeared as early as 1996, with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document. In August 2006, Amazon created subsidiary Amazon Web Services and introduced its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is a multinational technology company focusing in e-commerce, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence in Seattle, Washington.

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Amazon EC2EC2Elastic Compute Cloud
While the term "cloud computing" was popularized with Amazon.com releasing its Elastic Compute Cloud product in 2006, references to the phrase "cloud computing" appeared as early as 1996, with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document. In August 2006, Amazon created subsidiary Amazon Web Services and introduced its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) forms a central part of Amazon.com's cloud-computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS), by allowing users to rent virtual computers on which to run their own computer applications.

Provisioning (telecommunications)

provisioningprovisionedservice provisioning
Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis in near real-time (Note, the VM startup time varies by VM type, location, OS and cloud providers ), without users having to engineer for peak loads. This gives the ability to scale up when the usage need increases or down if resources are not being used. Emerging approaches for managing elasticity include the utilization of machine learning techniques to propose efficient elasticity models.
Discussion of provisioning often appears in the context of virtualization, orchestration, utility computing, cloud computing, and open-configuration concepts and projects.

Utility computing

computing utilitycomputer utility
The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.
This repackaging of computing services became the foundation of the shift to "on demand" computing, software as a service and cloud computing models that further propagated the idea of computing, application and network as a service.

Google

Google Inc.Google, Inc.Googling
In April 2008, Google released Google App Engine in beta.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

AT&T

AT&T Inc.AT&T Latin AmericaSBC
The term cloud was used to refer to platforms for distributed computing as early as 1993, when Apple spin-off General Magic and AT&T used it in describing their (paired) Telescript and PersonaLink technologies.
On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon.

Amazon Web Services

AWSAmazonAmazon AWS
In August 2006, Amazon created subsidiary Amazon Web Services and introduced its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon that provides on-demand cloud computing platforms to individuals, companies and governments, on a paid subscription basis.

Google App Engine

App EngineGoogle's App Enginecloud service
In April 2008, Google released Google App Engine in beta.
Google App Engine (often referred to as GAE or simply App Engine) is a web framework and cloud computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers.

OpenNebula

Open Nebula
In early 2008, NASA's OpenNebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds.
OpenNebula is a cloud computing platform for managing heterogeneous distributed data center infrastructures.

Microsoft Azure

AzureMicrosoft Azure Service BusWindows Azure
In February 2010, Microsoft released Microsoft Azure, which was announced in October 2008.
Microsoft Azure (formerly Windows Azure ) is a cloud computing service created by Microsoft for building, testing, deploying, and managing applications and services through Microsoft-managed data centers.

OpenStack

OpenStack SwiftSwiftNeutron
In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as OpenStack.
OpenStack (sometimes shorten as O~S) is a free and open-source software platform for cloud computing, mostly deployed as infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), whereby virtual servers and other resources are made available to customers.

Rackspace Cloud

RackspaceRackspace Cloud FilesMosso (Rackspace Cloud)
The early code came from NASA's Nebula platform as well as from Rackspace's Cloud Files platform.
The Rackspace Cloud is a set of cloud computing products and services billed on a utility computing basis from the US-based company Rackspace.

IBM cloud computing

IBM CloudCloudIBM Cloud Services Division
On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM SmartCloud framework to support Smarter Planet.
IBM cloud computing is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM.

Oracle Cloud

Oracle Cloud PlatformOracleOracle Cloud Infrastructure
On June 7, 2012, Oracle announced the Oracle Cloud.
Oracle Cloud is a cloud computing service offered by Oracle Corporation providing servers, storage, network, applications and services through a global network of Oracle Corporation managed data centers.

Nebula (computing platform)

NebulaNebula platform
The early code came from NASA's Nebula platform as well as from Rackspace's Cloud Files platform.
Nebula is a Federal cloud computing platform that originated at NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California.

Platform as a service

PaaSplatform-as-a-servicePlatform as a Service (PaaS)
This cloud offering is poised to be the first to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions, including the Applications (SaaS), Platform (PaaS), and Infrastructure (IaaS) layers.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) or Application Platform as a Service (aPaaS) or platform-based service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
In February 2010, Microsoft released Microsoft Azure, which was announced in October 2008.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999.

Operating-system-level virtualization

containerscontaineroperating system-level virtualization
With operating system–level virtualization essentially creating a scalable system of multiple independent computing devices, idle computing resources can be allocated and used more efficiently.
System-level-virtualization is frequently implemented in remote access applications with dynamic cloud access, allowing for simultaneous two-way data streaming over closed networks.

IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines Corporation
During the 1960s, the initial concepts of time-sharing became popularized via RJE (Remote Job Entry); this terminology was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC.
, these offerings fall into the categories of cloud computing, cognitive computing, commerce, data and analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), IT infrastructure, mobile, and security.

IT infrastructure

infrastructureinformation technology infrastructureIT Infrastructure Services
Advocates note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs.
It can be internal to an organization and deployed within owned facilities, or deployed within a cloud computing system, or a combination thereof.

Software as a service

SaaSsoftware-as-a-serviceSoftware as a Service (SaaS)
This cloud offering is poised to be the first to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions, including the Applications (SaaS), Platform (PaaS), and Infrastructure (IaaS) layers.
The term "Software as a Service" (SaaS) is considered to be part of the nomenclature of cloud computing, along with Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Desktop as a Service (DaaS), managed software as a service (MSaaS), mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), and information technology management as a service (ITMaaS).

Service-oriented architecture

SOAservice oriented architectureservice-oriented
The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.
SOA can be seen as part of the continuum which ranges from the older concept of distributed computing and modular programming, through SOA, and on to current practices of mashups, SaaS, and cloud computing (which some see as the offspring of SOA).

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can access their emails, access their data using cloud computing, or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure virtual private network (VPN) connection on the Internet.

Fog computing

fog
Fog computing—Distributed computing paradigm that provides data, compute, storage and application services closer to client or near-user edge devices, such as network routers. Furthermore, fog computing handles data at the network level, on smart devices and on the end-user client side (e.g. mobile devices), instead of sending data to a remote location for processing.
Compared to cloud computing, fog computing emphasizes proximity to end-users and client objectives, dense geographical distribution and local resource pooling, latency reduction and backbone bandwidth savings to achieve better quality of service (QoS) and edge analytics/stream mining, resulting in superior user-experience and redundancy in case of failure while it is also able to be used in Assisted Living scenarios.

Elasticity (cloud computing)

elasticityelasticelastic computing
Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis in near real-time (Note, the VM startup time varies by VM type, location, OS and cloud providers ), without users having to engineer for peak loads. This gives the ability to scale up when the usage need increases or down if resources are not being used. Emerging approaches for managing elasticity include the utilization of machine learning techniques to propose efficient elasticity models.
In cloud computing, elasticity is defined as "the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and de-provisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible".