Cloud physics

cloud microphysicscloud physicistMicrophysicscloud water dropletscloudsgrowth of raindropsprocess
Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation, growth and precipitation of atmospheric clouds.wikipedia
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Cloud

cloudscloud formationcloudy
Clouds consist of microscopic droplets of liquid water (warm clouds), tiny crystals of ice (cold clouds), or both (mixed phase clouds).
Nephology is the science of clouds, which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology.

Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process

Bergeron processBergeron-Findeisen processBergeron–Findeisen process
The collision and coalescence is not as important in mixed phase clouds where the Bergeron process dominates.
For other processes affecting particle size, see rain and cloud physics.

Köhler theory

Köhler curve
Cloud droplets initially form by the condensation of water vapor onto condensation nuclei when the supersaturation of air exceeds a critical value according to Köhler theory.
It is an important process in the field of cloud physics.

Water vapor

water vapourvaporevaporation
This process occurs when one or more of three possible lifting agents—cyclonic/frontal, convective, or orographic—causes air containing invisible water vapor to rise and cool to its dew point, the temperature at which the air becomes saturated.
From cloud physics, usually clouds are the real generators of static charge as found in Earth's atmosphere.

Cumulus cloud

cumulusCloudcumulus clouds
Small cumulus clouds with little vertical development (species humilis) are also commonly classified as low level.
Rain forms in a cumulus cloud via a process involving two non-discrete stages.

Hurricane dynamics and cloud microphysics

*Hurricane dynamics and cloud microphysics
Cloud microphysics describe the structure and properties of clouds on the microscopic scale.

Troposphere

troposphericdivergencemid-tropospheric
These aerosols are found in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere, which collectively make up the greatest part of the homosphere.

Stratosphere

stratospheric100K feetatmosphere
These aerosols are found in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere, which collectively make up the greatest part of the homosphere.

Mesosphere

upper atmospherenear spacemesospheric
These aerosols are found in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere, which collectively make up the greatest part of the homosphere.

Homosphere

These aerosols are found in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere, which collectively make up the greatest part of the homosphere.

Microscopic scale

microscopicmicromicroscopic level
Clouds consist of microscopic droplets of liquid water (warm clouds), tiny crystals of ice (cold clouds), or both (mixed phase clouds).

Supersaturation

supersaturatedsupersaturateoversaturated
Cloud droplets initially form by the condensation of water vapor onto condensation nuclei when the supersaturation of air exceeds a critical value according to Köhler theory.

Cloud condensation nuclei

condensation nucleicloud seedCondensation nucleus
Cloud condensation nuclei are necessary for cloud droplets formation because of the Kelvin effect, which describes the change in saturation vapor pressure due to a curved surface.

Kelvin equation

Kelvin effect
Cloud condensation nuclei are necessary for cloud droplets formation because of the Kelvin effect, which describes the change in saturation vapor pressure due to a curved surface.

Raoult's law

binary mixtures of volatile liquidsRaoult’s Law
Raoult's law describes how the vapor pressure is dependent on the amount of solute in a solution.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
Raoult's law describes how the vapor pressure is dependent on the amount of solute in a solution.

Rime ice

rimehard rimeSoft rime
Other important processes that form precipitation are riming, when a supercooled liquid drop collides with a solid snowflake, and aggregation, when two solid snowflakes collide and combine.

Mechanics

mechanicaltheoretical mechanicsmechanician
The precise mechanics of how a cloud forms and grows is not completely understood, but scientists have developed theories explaining the structure of clouds by studying the microphysics of individual droplets.

Weather radar

Doppler weather radarradarDoppler radar
Advances in weather radar and satellite technology have also allowed the precise study of clouds on a large scale.

Weather satellite

satellitemeteorological satelliteWeather
Advances in weather radar and satellite technology have also allowed the precise study of clouds on a large scale.

Otto von Guericke

Guerickevon GuerickeGuericke, Otto Von
Otto von Guericke originated the idea that clouds were composed of water bubbles.

Augustus Volney Waller

Augustus Waller
In 1847 Augustus Waller used spider web to examine droplets under the microscope.

Spider web

webcobwebwebs
In 1847 Augustus Waller used spider web to examine droplets under the microscope.

William Henry Dines

These observations were confirmed by William Henry Dines in 1880 and Richard Assmann in 1884.

Richard Assmann

Richard AßmannAdolph Richard Aßmann
These observations were confirmed by William Henry Dines in 1880 and Richard Assmann in 1884.