Clown

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A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.wikipedia
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Circus clown

Circus ClownsclownAuguste
The most recognisable modern clown character is the Auguste or "red clown" type, with outlandish costumes featuring distinctive makeup, colourful wigs, exaggerated footwear, and colourful clothing.
Clowns have always been an integral part of the circus, offering a source of amusement for patrons and providing relief from the array of animal acts and performances by acrobats and novelty artistes.

Physical comedy

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A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.
It can include slapstick, clowning, mime, physical stunts, or making funny faces.

Joseph Grimaldi

GrimaldiGrimaldJoey" Grimaldi
The first mainstream clown role was portrayed by Joseph Grimaldi (who also created the traditional whiteface make-up design).
He became so dominant on the London comic stage that the harlequinade role of Clown became known as "Joey", and both the nickname and Grimaldi's whiteface make-up design were, and still are, used by other types of clowns.

George L. Fox (clown)

George L. FoxGeorge FoxGeorge Washington Lafayette Fox
American comedian George L. Fox became known for his clown role, directly inspired by Grimaldi, in the 1860s.
George Washington Lafayette Fox (July 3, 1825 – October 24, 1877) was an American actor and dancer who became known for his clown roles and who based the characterisations on his inspiration Joseph Grimaldi.

Philip Astley

The modern circus derives from Philip Astley's London riding school, which opened in 1768.
Modern circus, as an integrated entertainment experience that includes music, domesticated animals, acrobats, and clowns, traces its heritage to Astley's Amphitheatre, a riding school that Astley founded in London following the success of trick-riding displays given by him and his wife Patty Jones in 1768.

Comedy

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The comedy that clowns perform is usually in the role of a fool whose everyday actions and tasks become extraordinary—and for whom the ridiculous, for a short while, becomes ordinary.
In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy and featured the first mainstream clown Joseph Grimaldi, while comedy routines also featured heavily in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s.

Nicolai Poliakoff

Coco the ClownCocoNikolajs Poļakovs
Belling's Auguste character was further popularized by Nicolai Poliakoff's Coco in the 1920s to 1930s.
Nicolai Poliakoff OBE (2 October 1900 – 25 September 1974) (Nikolajs Poļakovs) (Nikolai Petrovich Polyakov) was the creator of Coco the Clown, arguably the most famous clown in the UK during the middle decades of the 20th century.

Royal Opera House

Covent GardenCovent Garden TheatreRoyal Opera House, Covent Garden
In the early 1800s, he expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and the Sadler's Wells and Covent Garden theatres.
Kemble engaged a variety of acts, including the child performer Master Betty; the great clown Joseph Grimaldi made his name at Covent Garden.

Marceline Orbes

Marceline
Examples include Marceline Orbes, who performed at the Hippodrome Theater(1905), Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp (1914), and Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie based on hobos of the Depression era.
Marceline Orbes (May 15, 1873 - November 5, 1927), best known simply as Marceline, was a world-renowned clown during the late 19th and early 20th century.

Ronald McDonald

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McDonald's derived its mascot clown, Ronald McDonald, from the Bozo character in the 1960s.
Ronald McDonald is a clown character used as the primary mascot of the McDonald's fast-food restaurant chain.

Emmett Kelly

Emmett Kelly Sr.The Cairo Gang
Examples include Marceline Orbes, who performed at the Hippodrome Theater(1905), Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp (1914), and Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie based on hobos of the Depression era.
Emmett Leo Kelly (December 9, 1898 – March 28, 1979) was an American circus performer, who created the clown figure "Weary Willie", based on the hobos of the Depression era.

Red Skelton

The Red Skelton ShowFreddy the FreeloaderRichard Bernard "Red" Skelton
Red Skelton's Dodo the Clown in The Clown (1953), depicts the circus clown as a tragicomic stock character, "a funny man with a drinking problem".
Joseph Skelton, a grocer, died two months before Richard was born; he had once been a clown with the Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus.

Bozo the Clown

BozoBozo's Big TopBozo's Circus
In the United States, Bozo the Clown was an influential Auguste character since the late 1950s.
KTTV in Los Angeles began broadcasting the first show, Bozo's Circus, in 1949 featuring Colvig as Bozo with his blue-and-red costume, oversized red hair and whiteface clown makeup on Fridays at 7:30 p.m.

Evil clown

coulrophobiafear of clownskiller clown
The "fear of clowns", particularly circus clowns, has become known by the term coulrophobia.
The evil clown is a subversion of the traditional comic clown character, in which the playful trope is instead rendered as disturbing through the use of horror elements and dark humor.

Clown Care

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The strong association of the (Bozo-derived) clown character with children's entertainment as it has developed since the 1960s also gave rise to "Clown Care" or "hospital clowning" in children's hospitals by the mid 1980s.
Clown Care, also known as hospital clowning, is a program in health care facilities involving visits from specially trained clowns.

Theatre Royal, Drury Lane

Drury Lane TheatreDrury LaneTheatre Royal Drury Lane
In the early 1800s, he expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and the Sadler's Wells and Covent Garden theatres.
Grimaldi became best known for his development of the modern day white-face clown and popularised the role of Clown in many Pantomimes and Harlequinades.

Commedia dell'arte

commedia dell’arteItalian comedycommedia
The "clown" character developed out of the zanni "rustic fool" characters of the early modern commedia dell'arte, which were themselves directly based on the "rustic fool" characters of ancient Greek and Roman theatre. has a precedent in the pairing of Pierrot and Harlequin in the Commedia dell'arte.
The servants or the clowns are referred to as the zanni and include characters such as Arlecchino (also known as Harlequin), Brighella, Scapino, Pulcinella and Pedrolino.

Blackface

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From at least the 1810s, blackface clowns were popular in the United States.

Pagliacci

I PagliacciCanioTonio
The clown character as developed by the late 19th century is reflected in Ruggero Leoncavallo's 1892 opera Pagliacci ("Clowns").

Pierrot

clowneponymous Commedia dell'Arte characterPierino
has a precedent in the pairing of Pierrot and Harlequin in the Commedia dell'arte.
So conceived, Pierrot was easily and naturally displaced by the native English Clown when the latter found a suitably brilliant interpreter.

Glen Little (clown)

Glen "Frosty" LittleGlen LittleFrosty Little
Francesco Caroli and Glenn "Frosty" Little are examples of this type.
Glen "Frosty" Little (December 5, 1925 – October 26, 2010) was a circus clown who served with the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus for over 20 years.

World Clown Association

Clowns of America International (established 1984) and World Clown Association (established 1987) are associations of semi-professionals and professional performers.
The World Clown Association (WCA) is a worldwide organization for clowns, jugglers, magicians, and face painters.

Bill Irwin

Bill Irwin & FriendsCharlie Frye, Bill IrwinFool Moon
William Mills Irwin (born April 11, 1950) is an American actor, clown, and comedian.

Rodeo clown

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Originally, the rodeo clown was a single job combining "bullfighting"—the protection of riders thrown from the bull, as well as being an individual who provided comic relief.

Charlie Cairoli

The Cairoli BrothersCairoli BrothersCharlie Cairoli Junior
Hubert Jean Charles "Charlie" Cairoli (15 February 1910 – 17 February 1980) was an Italian-English clown, impressionist and musician.