Coal mining

coal minecollierycoal minercoal minescollieriescoalminingcoalcoal minersminingcoal-mining
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.wikipedia
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Longwall mining

longwalllongwall minelong wall
Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunneling, digging, and manually extracting the coal on carts to large open cut and long wall mines.
Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically thick).

Mountaintop removal mining

mountaintop removalmountain top removalOhio Valley Environmental Coalition
Mountaintop removal combines area and contour strip mining methods.
This method of coal mining is conducted in the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States.

Bituminous coal

black coalbituminouscoal
Most open cast mines in the United States extract bituminous coal.
Within the coal mining industry, this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp, a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions.

Mine Safety and Health Administration

MSHAMining Safety and Health AdministrationU.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration
To protect miners' hearing, the US Mine Safety and Health Administration's (MSHA) guidelines for noise place a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for noise at 90 dBA time-weighted over 8 hours.
The Coal Mine Safety and Health division is divided into 12 districts covering coal mining in different portions of the United States.

Mining accident

mine disasteraccidentmining accidents
Historically, coal mining has been a very dangerous activity and the list of historical coal mining disasters is a long one.
Thousands of miners die from mining accidents each year, especially from underground coal mining, although hard rock mining is not immune from accidents.

Headframe

pit headheadgearheadstocks
In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine – a pit, and the above-ground structures – a pit head.
The Ruhr district of Germany and the South Wales Valleys in Britain are both examples of areas which are now associated with headframes due to the large number constructed to mine coal during the Industrial Revolution.

Sago Mine disaster

2006 Sago Mine disasterSago MineSago
Mine disasters have still occurred in recent years in the US, Examples include the Sago Mine disaster of 2006, and the 2007 mine accident in Utah's Crandall Canyon Mine, where nine miners were killed and six entombed.
The Sago Mine disaster was a coal mine explosion on January 2, 2006, at the Sago Mine in Sago, West Virginia, United States, near the Upshur County seat of Buckhannon.

Firedamp

fire dampfire-dampmine gas
Firedamp explosions can trigger the much-more-dangerous coal dust explosions, which can engulf an entire pit.
Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.

Crandall Canyon Mine

2007 Crandall Canyon Mine DisasterCrandall CanyonCrandall Canyon Mine collapse
Mine disasters have still occurred in recent years in the US, Examples include the Sago Mine disaster of 2006, and the 2007 mine accident in Utah's Crandall Canyon Mine, where nine miners were killed and six entombed.
The Crandall Canyon Mine, formerly Genwal Mine, was an underground bituminous coal mine in northwestern Emery County, Utah.

Outburst (mining)

outburstcoaloutbursts
Open cut hazards are principally mine wall failures and vehicle collisions; underground mining hazards include suffocation, gas poisoning, roof collapse, rock burst, outbursts, and gas explosions.
An outburst is the sudden and violent ejection of coal, gas and rock from a coal face and surrounding strata in an underground coal mine.

Domestic canary

canarycanariesminer's canary
The use of sophisticated sensing equipment to monitor air quality is common and has replaced the use of small animals such as canaries, often referred to as "miner's canaries".
From the 18th up to the 20th centuries, canaries and finches were used in the UK, Canada and the US in the coal mining industry, to detect carbon monoxide.

Aberfan disaster

AberfanPantglas Junior School1966 Aberfan coal slurry disaster
In the 1966 Aberfan disaster in Wales, a colliery spoil tip collapsed, engulfing a school and killing 116 children and 28 adults.
The Aberfan disaster was the catastrophic collapse of a colliery spoil tip at around 9:15 am on 21 October 1966.

Safety lamp

safety lampsClannyClanny lamps
Improvements in mining methods (e.g. longwall mining), hazardous gas monitoring (such as safety-lamps or more modern electronic gas monitors), gas drainage, electrical equipment, and ventilation have reduced many of the risks of rock falls, explosions, and unhealthy air quality.
A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp that provides illumination in coal mines and is designed to operate in air that may contain coal dust or gases both of which are potentially flammable or explosive.

Acid mine drainage

acid rock drainagesulfide miningacid drainage
Mine dumps (tailings) could produce acid mine drainage which can seep into waterways and aquifers, with consequences on ecological and human health.
Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.

Electrical equipment in hazardous areas

hazardous areasexplosion proofhazardous locations
Improvements in mining methods (e.g. longwall mining), hazardous gas monitoring (such as safety-lamps or more modern electronic gas monitors), gas drainage, electrical equipment, and ventilation have reduced many of the risks of rock falls, explosions, and unhealthy air quality.
Soon after the introduction of electric power into coal mines, it was discovered that lethal explosions could be initiated by electrical equipment such as lighting, signals, or motors.

Coal in Australia

Coal mining in AustraliaAustraliacoal mining
Top 10 hard and brown coal producers in 2012 were (in million metric tons): China 3,621, United States 922, India 629, Australia 432, Indonesia 410, Russia 351, South Africa 261, Germany 196, Poland 144, and Kazakhstan 122.
About 75% of coal mined in Australia is exported, mostly to eastern Asia, and of the balance most is used in electricity generation.

Coal

coal seamcoal industrycoal-fired
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
Coal mining and coal fueling of power stations and industrial processes can cause major environmental damage.

Joggins

Joggins Fossil CliffsJoggins, Nova ScotiaJoggins Fossil Centre
The first coal mines in North America were located in Joggins and Port Morien, Nova Scotia, mined by French settlers beginning in the late 1600s.
Situated on the Cumberland Basin, a sub-basin of the Bay of Fundy, Joggins was a long established coal mining area.

Blackdamp

black dampchokedampchoke damp
It occurs with particular frequency in abandoned or poorly ventilated coal mines.

Svalbard Treaty

Spitsbergen Treatyspecial status under international lawSpitsbergen Treaty of 1920
Russia and Norway share the coal resources of the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, under the Svalbard Treaty.
The signatories were given equal rights to engage in commercial activities (mainly coal mining) on the islands.

List of countries by coal production

Coal production15thcountries which produce coal
Canada was ranked as the 15th coal producing country in the world in 2010, with a total production of 67.9 million tonnes.
This is a list of countries by coal production, based mostly on the Statistical Review of World Energy ranking countries with coal production larger than 5 million tonnes.

Svalbard

SpitzbergenSvalbard ArchipelagoSpitsbergen
Russia and Norway share the coal resources of the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, under the Svalbard Treaty.
Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, and several permanent communities were established.

RAG AG

Ruhrkohle AGRAGRuhrkohle
As a consequence, RAG AG, the owner of the two remaining coal mines in Germany, announced it would close all mines by 2018, thus ending coal mining in Germany.
RAG AG, formerly Ruhrkohle AG, is the largest German coal mining corporation.

Donbass

DonbasDonets BasinDonbass region
More than 90 percent of Ukraine's coal production comes from the Donets Basin.
The most common definition in use today refers to the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine, whilst the historical coal mining region excluded parts of these oblasts, and included areas in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast and Southern Russia.

Ruhr

Ruhr areaRuhrgebietRuhr region
The main mining areas were around Aachen, the Ruhr and Saar area, along with many smaller areas in other parts of Germany.
The Bergische industry ordered more and more coal from the new coal mining area along the Ruhr.