Coalition Provisional Authority

IraqCPACivilian administrator of Iraqpost-Saddam Iraqthe occupationCoalitionORHAAdministrator of IraqAdministrators of the Coalition Provisional Authoritydirector
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة, هاوپەيمانى دەسەڵاتى كاتى) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.wikipedia
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2003 invasion of Iraq

invasion of IraqIraq War2003 Iraq War
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة, هاوپەيمانى دەسەڵاتى كاتى) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.
This early stage of the war formally ended on 1 May 2003 when U.S. President George W. Bush declared the "End of major combat operations", after which the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as the first of several successive transitional governments leading up to the first Iraqi parliamentary election in January 2005.

Jay Garner

General Jay GarnerJay Montgomery GarnerLt. Gen. Jay Garner
Retired United States Army Lieutenant General Jay Garner was appointed as the Director of ORHA, along with three deputies, including British Major-General Tim Cross, in 2003. Garner's refusal to implement this "de-Ba'athification" of Iraqi society as a matter of public policy infuriated several senior members of the U.S. government, and led directly to his dismissal.
Jay Montgomery Garner (born April 15, 1938) is a retired United States Army lieutenant general who was appointed in 2003 as Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq but was soon replaced by Ambassador Paul Bremer and the ambassador's successor organization to ORHA, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).

De-Ba'athification

de-BaathificationAccountability and Justice CommissionAccountability and Justice Committee
Garner's refusal to implement this "de-Ba'athification" of Iraqi society as a matter of public policy infuriated several senior members of the U.S. government, and led directly to his dismissal. The first act of the CPA under Bremer, Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1, was to order the de-Ba'athification of Iraqi society.
De-Ba'athification (Arabic: اجتثاث حزب البعث‎) refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Ba'ath Party's influence in the new Iraqi political system.

Tim Cross

Major-General Tim CrossMajor-General Tim Cross CBE
Retired United States Army Lieutenant General Jay Garner was appointed as the Director of ORHA, along with three deputies, including British Major-General Tim Cross, in 2003.
He was the most senior British officer involved in the planning and in the Coalition Provisional Authority.

Oil-for-Food Programme

Oil-for-Food ProgramOil for FoodOil for Food program
This fund superseded the earlier UN oil-for-food program, and provided funding for Iraq's wheat purchase program, the currency exchange program, the electricity and oil infrastructure programs, equipment for Iraq's security forces, Iraqi civil service salaries, and the operations of the various government ministries.
The sanctions were discontinued on 21 November 2003 after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, and the humanitarian functions turned over to the Coalition Provisional Authority.

Coalition Provisional Authority Order 2

Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2Order Number 2CPA Order Number 2
On 23 May, CPA Order Number 2 formally disbanded the Iraqi army On 22 July 2003, the CPA formed the Iraqi Governing Council and appointed its members.
Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2: Dissolution of Entities signed by Coalition Provisional Authority on 23 May 2003, disbanded the Iraqi military, security, and intelligence infrastructure of President Saddam Hussein.

Green Zone

International ZoneFOB Union IIIBaghdad's Green Zone
The administration was centered in a district of Baghdad known as the Green Zone, which eventually became a highly secure walled-off enclave. In the late afternoon of 14 December 2003, the CPA held a press conference at the Iraqi Forum convention center within Baghdad's Green Zone to announce that former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein had been taken into custody the previous night from a foxhole in a town near Saddam's home town of Tikrit, Iraq.
It was a 10 km2 area in the Karkh district of central Baghdad, Iraq, that was the governmental center of the Coalition Provisional Authority during the occupation of Iraq after the American-led 2003 invasion and remains the center of the international presence in the city.

Iraqi Governing Council

Interim Iraq Governing CouncilIraq Interim Governing CouncilPresident of the Governing Council of Iraq
On 23 May, CPA Order Number 2 formally disbanded the Iraqi army On 22 July 2003, the CPA formed the Iraqi Governing Council and appointed its members.
It was established by and served under the United States-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).

Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1

Order 1: De-Ba'athification of Iraqi SocietyOrder No. 1
The first act of the CPA under Bremer, Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1, was to order the de-Ba'athification of Iraqi society.
Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1: De-Ba'athification of Iraqi Society is the first of the 100 Orders imposed by the Coalition Provisional Authority after the Iraq War.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483

Resolution 14831483UN Security Council Resolution 1483
Citing United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 (2003) and the laws of war, the CPA was established in May 2003 and vested itself with executive, legislative, and judicial authority over the Iraqi government from the period of the CPA's inception on 21 April 2003 until its dissolution on 28 June 2004 (14 months, 1 week).
The resolution transferred the authority to authorize expenditures from Iraq's oil revenue from the United Nations to a Development Fund for Iraq, controlled by the Coalition Provisional Authority, on 23 May 2003.

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region

Ba'ath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath PartyIraqi Regional Branch
Privately, there was intense pressure from the U.S. government to begin a process of removing members of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from their positions within the Iraqi government and military.
In June 2003, the U.S.-led Coalition Provisional Authority banned the Ba'ath Party, and banned all members of the party's top four tiers from the new government and from public schools and colleges, a move which some criticised for blocking too many experienced people from participating in the new government.

Iraqi Interim Government

interim governmentIraq Interim GovernmentInterim Iraqi Government
In order to defeat possible insurgent planning and under pressure from the Bush White House which wanted the occupation to end by the 2004 presidential election, the CPA transferred power to the newly appointed Iraqi Interim Government at 10:26 AM local time on 28 June 2004.
The Iraqi Interim Government itself took the place of the Coalition Provisional Authority (and the Iraq Interim Governing Council) on June 28, 2004, and was replaced by the Iraqi Transitional Government on May 3, 2005.

Donald Rumsfeld

Donald H. RumsfeldRumsfeldDon Rumsfeld
Due to his past military experiences in Iraq during Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and his reconstruction efforts in northern Iraq during Operation Provide Comfort, Garner's credentials and close ties to the U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld made him an obvious choice for the task.
Many government buildings, plus major museums, electrical generation infrastructure, and even oil equipment were looted and vandalized during the transition from the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime to the establishment of the Coalition Provisional Authority.

Baghdad

Baghdad, IraqBagdadBaghdād
The administration was centered in a district of Baghdad known as the Green Zone, which eventually became a highly secure walled-off enclave.
Eventually, Paul Bremer, Director of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq from 11 May 2003 to 28 June 2004 ordered protection of the zoo and U.S. engineers helped to reopen the facility.

Coalition Provisional Authority Program Review Board

Program Review Board
The Program Review Board (PRB) was an eleven-member board that consisted of ten staff members from the CPA and one member of the Iraqi Governing Council.
The Coalition Provisional Authority Program Review Board was composed of the senior personnel of the Coalition Provisional Authority, charged with the responsibility to review and make recommendations about the awarding of contracts to the administrator of the authority, Paul Bremer.

President of Iraq

PresidentIraqi Presidentpresidency
In the late afternoon of 14 December 2003, the CPA held a press conference at the Iraqi Forum convention center within Baghdad's Green Zone to announce that former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein had been taken into custody the previous night from a foxhole in a town near Saddam's home town of Tikrit, Iraq.
The sixth and seventh president of Iraq was held by Jay Garner and Paul Bremer, both Americans, who were appointed by Coalition Provisional Authority after the 2003 invasion of Iraq that have overthrown the fifth president, Saddam Hussein.

Republican Palace

Royal Palaceformer Palacepalaces
While many of Saddam Hussein's ornate palaces were looted in the days immediately following the invasion, most of the physical structures themselves survived relatively intact.
As early as April 2003, some of the first tenants had started to occupy office space in the Palace, such as Andrew Goledzinowski (ORHA), of the Australian Foreign Affairs Council, charged with the task of setting up the new Iraqi Ministry of Justice.

Development Fund for Iraq

KPMG audit of the Development Fund for Iraqaudit the CPA's expenditures from the DFIexternal auditors
The CPA was also responsible for administering the Development Fund for Iraq during the year following the invasion.
In May 2003, following the invasion of Iraq in March of that year, the Central Bank of Iraq-Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) account was created at the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of New York at the request of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) Administrator.

Paul Bremer

L. Paul BremerBremerAmbassador Paul Bremer
His term, however, lasted only from 21 April 2003 until he was replaced abruptly less than a month later by L. Paul Bremer on 11 May 2003.
He is best known for leading the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and assuming the title of Interim President of Iraq, following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States, from May 2003 until June 2004.

International Advisory and Monitoring Board

The International Advisory and Monitoring Board was appointed to oversee the Coalition Provisional Authority's disbursements from the humanitarian Development Fund for Iraq.

Stuart Bowen

Stuart Bowen, Jr.Stuart W. Bowen, Jr.
Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction Stuart Bowen said that "Any doubts about how the money was handled after it left U.S. control is an Iraqi -- not U.S. government -- question".
He previously served as the Inspector General for the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA-IG), a position to which he was appointed in January 2004.

Richard Jones (U.S. diplomat)

Richard JonesRichard Henry JonesRichard H. Jones
He has served as United States Ambassador to Israel (2005–2008), Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State and Coordinator for Iraq Policy (February–September 2005), Chief Policy Officer and Deputy Administrator for the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad (November 2013 - June 2014), Ambassador to Kuwait (2001–2004), Ambassador to Kazakhstan (1998–2000), and Ambassador to Lebanon (1996–1998).

Investment in post-invasion Iraq

Reconstruction of IraqIraq Reconstruction Management OfficeIraqi reconstruction
Much of the work has been funded by the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund, and the Coalition Provisional Authority.

Iraqi dinar

dinarsIQDdinar
Between 15 October 2003, and 15 January 2004, the Coalition Provisional Authority issued new Iraqi dinar coins and notes, with the notes printed by the British security printing firm De La Rue using modern anti-forgery techniques to "create a single unified currency that is used throughout all of Iraq and will also make money more convenient to use in people's everyday lives".

Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund

IRRF
The CPA also administered $18.4 billion that the United States Congress allocated for Iraqi reconstruction in November 2003, known as the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF).