Coaxial cable

coaxialcoax cablecablecoaxco-axial cablecoaxial cablescoaxial cablingcoaxial linecable linesco-axial
Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced ) is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.wikipedia
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Transmission line

transmission linestransmissiontransmission-line
Coaxial cable is a type of transmission line, used to carry high frequency electrical signals with low losses.
This article covers two-conductor transmission line such as parallel line (ladder line), coaxial cable, stripline, and microstrip.

S/PDIF

SPDIFIEC 61937digital audio output
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network (e.g., Ethernet) connections, digital audio (S/PDIF), and distribution of cable television signals.
The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fiber optic cable with TOSLINK connectors.

Ethernet

Ethernet portEthernet cableEthernet network
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network (e.g., Ethernet) connections, digital audio (S/PDIF), and distribution of cable television signals. While formerly common for implementing computer networks, in particular Ethernet ("thick" 10BASE5 and "thin" 10BASE2), twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access.
The original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches.

Cable television

cablecable TVcable channel
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network (e.g., Ethernet) connections, digital audio (S/PDIF), and distribution of cable television signals. It is used in such applications as telephone trunklines, broadband internet networking cables, high speed computer data busses, carrying cable television signals, and connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas. Likewise with CATV, although many broadcast TV installations and CATV headends use 300 Ω folded dipole antennas to receive off-the-air signals, 75 Ω coax makes a convenient 4:1 balun transformer for these as well as possessing low attenuation.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

Feed line

feedlinefeeder linefeeding line
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network (e.g., Ethernet) connections, digital audio (S/PDIF), and distribution of cable television signals.
The most widely used types of feed line are coaxial cable, twin-lead, ladder line, and at microwave frequencies, waveguide.

Polyethylene

polythenePEpolyethene
A common choice is a solid polyethylene (PE) insulator, used in lower-loss cables.
Because polyethylene was found to have very low-loss properties at very high frequency radio waves, commercial distribution in Britain was suspended on the outbreak of World War II, secrecy imposed, and the new process was used to produce insulation for UHF and SHF coaxial cables of radar sets.

Oliver Heaviside

HeavisideHeaviside, OliverHeaviside|Heaviside's operators
Coaxial cable was used in the first (1858) and following transatlantic cable installations, but its theory wasn't described until 1880 by English physicist, engineer, and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, who patented the design in that year (British patent No.
That same year he patented, in England, the coaxial cable.

Electrical cable

cablecablescabling
Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced ) is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry.

Coaxial

axialthe same axis
The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing a geometric axis.
A coaxial cable, as a common example, is a three-dimensional linear structure.

Standing wave ratio

VSWRSWRvoltage standing wave ratio
The source and load impedances are chosen to match the impedance of the cable to ensure maximum power transfer and minimum standing wave ratio.
In practice most transmission lines used in these applications are coaxial cables with an impedance of either 50 or 75 ohms, so most SWR meters correspond to one of these.

IBM 3270

3270TN3270IBM 3279
RG-62 is a 93 Ω coaxial cable originally used in mainframe computer networks in the 1970s and early 1980s (it was the cable used to connect IBM 3270 terminals to IBM 3274/3174 terminal cluster controllers).
Unlike a character-oriented terminal, the 3270 minimizes the number of I/O interrupts required by transferring large blocks of data known as data streams, and uses a high speed proprietary communications interface, using coaxial cable.

Waveguide (radio frequency)

waveguideWaveguide (electromagnetism)waveguides
Coaxial cable may be viewed as a type of waveguide.
It was discovered that transmission lines used to carry lower frequency radio waves, parallel line and coaxial cable, had excessive power losses at microwave frequencies, creating a need for a new transmission method.

RG-6

RG-6URG6RG-6/U cable
Thanks to television, RG-6 is the most commonly used coaxial cable for home use, and the majority of connections outside Europe are by F connectors.
RG-6/U is a common type of coaxial cable used in a wide variety of residential and commercial applications.

Cable modem

cablecable modemscable internet
While formerly common for implementing computer networks, in particular Ethernet ("thick" 10BASE5 and "thin" 10BASE2), twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access.
A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC), radio frequency over glass (RFoG) and coaxial cable infrastructure.

Twin-lead

twin leadladder lineOpen-wire "Ladder" Line
Twin-lead transmission lines have the property that the electromagnetic wave propagating down the line extends into the space surrounding the parallel wires.
Twin lead can have significantly lower signal loss than miniature flexible coaxial cable at shortwave and VHF radio frequencies; for example, type RG-58 coaxial cable loses 6.6 dB per 100 m at 30 MHz, while 300 ohm twin-lead loses only 0.55 dB.

Transverse mode

modeTEM modeTEM
In radio-frequency applications up to a few gigahertz, the wave propagates primarily in the transverse electric magnetic (TEM) mode, which means that the electric and magnetic fields are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
In coaxial cable energy is normally transported in the fundamental TEM mode.

Balun

Telephone balance unitBalbal (transformer)choke balun
Likewise with CATV, although many broadcast TV installations and CATV headends use 300 Ω folded dipole antennas to receive off-the-air signals, 75 Ω coax makes a convenient 4:1 balun transformer for these as well as possessing low attenuation.
Something as simple as 10 turns of coaxial cable coiled up on a diameter about the size of a dinner plate makes an effective choke balun for frequencies from about 10 MHz to beyond 30 MHz.

RG-58

RG-58/URG-58A/URG58
RG-58/U is a type of coaxial cable often used for low-power signal and RF connections.

RG-59

RG59RG-59/URG-59/U cable
RG-59/U is a specific type of coaxial cable, often used for low-power video and RF signal connections.

10BASE2

10BASE-210B2thin Ethernet
While formerly common for implementing computer networks, in particular Ethernet ("thick" 10BASE5 and "thin" 10BASE2), twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access.
10BASE2 (also known as cheapernet, thin Ethernet, thinnet, and thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable terminated with BNC connectors.

Characteristic impedance

impedancecharacteristicimpedances
The characteristic impedance of the cable (Z_0) is determined by the dielectric constant of the inner insulator and the radii of the inner and outer conductors.
The characteristic impedance of coaxial cables (coax) is commonly chosen to be 50 Ω for RF and microwave applications.

Satellite television

satellitedirect broadcast satellitesatellite TV
The amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via very expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with relatively complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter (a mixer and a voltage-tuned oscillator with some filter circuitry) for downconversion to an intermediate frequency.

Wave interference

interferenceconstructive interferencedestructive interference
It is usually undesirable to transmit signals above the cutoff frequency, since it may cause multiple modes with different phase velocities to propagate, interfering with each other.
All of the telescopes in the array are widely separated and are usually connected together using coaxial cable, waveguide, optical fiber, or other type of transmission line.

Decibel

dBdecibelsbel
Similarly, in telecommunications, decibels denote signal gain or loss from a transmitter to a receiver through some medium (free space, waveguide, coaxial cable, fiber optics, etc.) using a link budget.

Direct-buried cable

direct-burieddirectly burieddirect burial
Outdoor applications may require the jacket to resist ultraviolet light, oxidation, rodent damage, or direct burial.
Most cable of this kind is coaxial or bundled fiber-optic cable.