Cobden–Chevalier Treaty

Cobden Chevalier treatyCobden-Chevalier Treaty of 1860Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreementFrench Commercial TreatyThe commercial treatytrade treatyTreaty of Commerce with England
The Cobden–Chevalier Treaty was an Anglo-French free trade agreement signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January 1860.wikipedia
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Richard Cobden

CobdenRichard Cobden MP
It is named after the main British and French originators of the treaty, Richard Cobden MP and Michel Chevalier.
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

John Bright

BrightJohn Bright MPJ. Bright
In a Parliamentary session of 1859, Cobden's friend and political ally John Bright asked why, instead of spending money on armaments against a possible French invasion, did not the Government attempt to persuade the French Emperor to trade freely with Britain.
Bright also worked with Cobden in another free trade initiative, the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty of 1860, promoting closer interdependence between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Second French Empire.

Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon BonaparteEmperor Napoleon IIILouis Napoleon
In a Parliamentary session of 1859, Cobden's friend and political ally John Bright asked why, instead of spending money on armaments against a possible French invasion, did not the Government attempt to persuade the French Emperor to trade freely with Britain.
Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
The Cobden–Chevalier Treaty was an Anglo-French free trade agreement signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January 1860.
The commercial treaty with Great Britain in 1860 ratified the free trade policy of Richard Cobden and Michel Chevalier, had brought upon French industry the sudden shock of foreign competition.

William Ewart Gladstone

GladstoneWilliam GladstoneW. E. Gladstone
In September, Cobden visited the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Ewart Gladstone and they both agreed that a commercial treaty between Britain and France was a good idea.
Gladstone's budget of 1860 was introduced on 10 February along with the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty between Britain and France that would reduce tariffs between the two countries.

Michel Chevalier

It is named after the main British and French originators of the treaty, Richard Cobden MP and Michel Chevalier.
Together with Richard Cobden and John Bright he prepared the free trade agreement of 1860 between the United Kingdom and France, which is still called the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty.

Free trade

trade liberalizationfree-tradetrade liberalisation
Free trade
The first free trade agreement, the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty, was put in place in 1860 between Britain and France, which led to successive agreements between other countries in Europe.

Protectionism

protectionisttariff reformprotection
Protectionism
Findlay and O'Rourke characterize the 1860 Cobden Chevalier treaty between France and the United Kingdom as "a decisive shift toward European free trade."

Méline tariff

France ended the treaty in 1892 in favour of the Méline tariff.
It is noted as being the most important piece of economic legislation of the Third Republic and marked a return to earlier protectionist policies effectively ending the period of free trade associated with the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

List of treaties

declaration of friendship and co-operationTreaty of FriendshipU.S. treaties
List of treaties

Free-trade area

free trade agreementfree trade areafree trade agreements
The Cobden–Chevalier Treaty was an Anglo-French free trade agreement signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January 1860.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The Cobden–Chevalier Treaty was an Anglo-French free trade agreement signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January 1860.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

ChancellorChancellors of the ExchequerSpokesperson for the Treasury
In September, Cobden visited the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Ewart Gladstone and they both agreed that a commercial treaty between Britain and France was a good idea.

Eugène Rouher

RouherHis Excellency Eugène Rouher
After talks with Chevalier and the French Minister of Commerce Eugène Rouher in Paris, Cobden had his first audience with the Emperor on 27 October 1859.

Tariff

tariffscustoms dutyimport duties
They discussed free trade and the Emperor informed him that he could alter tariffs by decree if it were part of an international treaty but that he was worried that free trade would throw French workers out of their jobs.

Labour economics

laborlabor marketlabour market
Cobden replied that free trade tended to increase rather than diminish the demand for labour and that because of his tariff reforms Sir Robert Peel came to have great fame and reputation in Britain.

Robert Peel

Sir Robert PeelPeelSir Robert Peel, Bt
Cobden replied that free trade tended to increase rather than diminish the demand for labour and that because of his tariff reforms Sir Robert Peel came to have great fame and reputation in Britain.

Jean Gilbert Victor Fialin, duc de Persigny

PersignyVictor Fialin, comte de PersignyDuc de Persigny
Persigny, the French ambassador to Britain, warned the Emperor that war with Britain was a real possibility unless some kind of alliance with Britain was signed, and that with such an alliance in being it did not matter what other European states thought.

Gene Grossman

Gene M. Grossman
Princeton University economist Gene Grossman described the treaty as the "first modern trade agreement."

Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

Minister of Foreign AffairsMinistry of Foreign AffairsForeign Minister
On 23 January 1860 at the Foreign Office the plenipotentiaries of both nations signed and sealed the treaty.

Seal (emblem)

sealsealssignet ring
On 23 January 1860 at the Foreign Office the plenipotentiaries of both nations signed and sealed the treaty.

Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley

Lord CowleyHenry Richard Charles WellesleyHenry Wellesley, 2nd Baron Cowley
Lord Cowley, the British Ambassador to France, and Cobden signed on behalf of the United Kingdom and Jules Baroche, the French Foreign Minister, and Rouher for France.

List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to France

Ambassador to FranceBritish Ambassador to FranceFrance
Lord Cowley, the British Ambassador to France, and Cobden signed on behalf of the United Kingdom and Jules Baroche, the French Foreign Minister, and Rouher for France.

Jules Baroche

Baroche
Lord Cowley, the British Ambassador to France, and Cobden signed on behalf of the United Kingdom and Jules Baroche, the French Foreign Minister, and Rouher for France.

Duty (economics)

dutiesdutycustoms duties
The treaty reduced French duties on most British manufactured goods to levels not above 30% and reduced British duties on French wines and brandy.