Cochin Jews

Cochin JewCochin JewishCochinMalabar JewsJewishJewsJewish communityJuda MappilaMalabar JewishMalabar Yehudan
Cochin Jews (also known as Malabar Jews or Kochinim, from Yehudey Kochin), are the oldest group of Jews in India, with roots that are claimed to date back to the time of King Solomon.wikipedia
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Judeo-Malayalam

Judæo-MalayalamJewish MalayalamJewish Malayalam dialects
They are known to have developed Judeo-Malayalam, a dialect of Malayalam language.
Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language of the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by a few dozens of people in Israel and by probably fewer than 25 in India.

Kerala

Kerala stateKerala, Indiastate of Kerala
The Cochin Jews settled in the Kingdom of Cochin in South India, now part of the state of Kerala.
Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite (Jewish), Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas and Muslim Mappilas.

List of synagogues in Kerala

synagogues in KeralaJewish synagogues in KeralaKerala synagogues
Most of their synagogues are still existing in Kerala, whereas a few were sold or adapted for other uses.
One of these belonged to the White Jews of Cochin, while the other 7 belonged to the Malabari (Brown or Black) Jews.

Paradesi Synagogue

Jewish SynagoguePardesi Synagoguesynagogue
Among the 8 synagogues that had survived till the middle of 20th century, only the Paradesi synagogue still has a regular congregation and also attracts tourists as a historic site.
When the community moved to Kochi in the 14th century, it built a new synagogue there.) Constructed in 1568, it is one of seven synagogues of the Malabar Yehudan or Yehudan Mappila people or Cochin Jewish community in the Kingdom of Cochin.

Abraham Barak Salem

In the early 20th century, Abraham Barak Salem (1882–1967), a young lawyer who became known as a "Jewish Gandhi", worked to end the discrimination against meshuchrarim Jews.
Abraham Barak Salem (1882–1967) was an Indian nationalist and Zionist, a lawyer and politician, and one of the most prominent Cochin Jews of the twentieth century.

Christianity in India

Indian ChristiansChristianityChristian
The meshuchrarim were not allowed to marry White Jews and had to sit in the back of the synagogue; these practices were similar to the discrimination against converts from lower castes sometimes found in Christian churches in India.
As with early Christianity in the Roman Empire, it is assumed that the initial converts were largely Jewish proselytes among the Cochin Jews.

Malayalam

Malayalam languageMalayalam-languageMalayalam–language
They are known to have developed Judeo-Malayalam, a dialect of Malayalam language.
It shows the same phase of the language as in Jewish and Nasrani Sasanas (dated to mid‑8th century).

Kochi

Cochincity of KochiKochi, India
In 1341, a disastrous flood silted up the port of Cranganore, and trade shifted to a smaller port at Cochin (Kochi). Although India is noted for having four distinct Jewish communities, viz Cochin, Bene-Israel (of Bombay and its environs), Calcutta and New Delhi, communications between the Jews of Cochin and the Bene-Israel community were greatest in the mid-19th century.
The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin "Kogin", which is seen in the seal of the synagogue owned by the community.

Kodungallur

CranganoreKodungalloorKodungallor
Only after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE are records found that attest to numerous Jewish settlers arriving at Cranganore, an ancient port near Cochin.
According to one tradition, a Cochin Jew colony in Malabar Coast, probably established before the 6th century BCE, attracted the Apostle to this region.

Beersheba

Be'er ShevaBeer ShevaBeersheva
Others settled in the neighbourhood of Katamon in Jerusalem, and in Beersheba, Ramla, Dimona, and Yeruham, where many Bene Israel had settled.
A large portion of the population is made up of the descendants of Sephardi Jews and Mizrahi Jews who immigrated from Arab countries after 1948, as well as smaller communities of Bene Israel and Cochin Jews from India.

Synagogue

synagoguesshultemple
The Hindu king gave permission in perpetuity (or, in the more poetic expression of those days, "as long as the world and moon exist") for Jews to live freely, build synagogues, and own property "without conditions attached".

Bene Israel

Bene Israel JewBene Israeli JewsBene Jews
Others settled in the neighbourhood of Katamon in Jerusalem, and in Beersheba, Ramla, Dimona, and Yeruham, where many Bene Israel had settled. Although India is noted for having four distinct Jewish communities, viz Cochin, Bene-Israel (of Bombay and its environs), Calcutta and New Delhi, communications between the Jews of Cochin and the Bene-Israel community were greatest in the mid-19th century.
They suggest that the "David Rahabi" of Bene Israel folklore was a man named David Ezekiel Rahabi, who lived from 1694 to 1772, and resided in Cochin, then the center of the wealthy Malabar Jewish community.

Meshuchrarim

meshuchrar
It is claimed that the White Jews had brought with them from Iberia a few score meshuchrarim (former slaves, some of mixed African-European descent).
They were at the lowest of the Cochin Jewish informal caste ladder.

Paradesi Jews

Paradesi JewYaheh HalleguaChennai Jews
They became known as Paradesi Jews (or Foreign Jews).
Paradesi Jews of Cochin traded in spices, are a community of Sephardic Jews settled among the larger Cochin Jewish community located in Kerala, a coastal southern state of India.

Anjuvannam

anjuman/hanjamanaanjuvannam (the anjuman)anjuvannam,
Indian rulers granted the Jewish leader Joseph Rabban the rank of prince over the Jews of Cochin, giving him the rulership and tax revenue of a pocket principality in Anjuvannam near Cranganore, and rights to seventy-two "free houses".

History of the Jews in India

Indian JewsIndiaIndian Jewish
Cochin Jews (also known as Malabar Jews or Kochinim, from Yehudey Kochin), are the oldest group of Jews in India, with roots that are claimed to date back to the time of King Solomon.

Shahar, Israel

Shahar
Many of the migrants joined the moshavim (agricultural settlements) of Nevatim, Shahar, Yuval, and Mesilat Zion.
The moshav was founded in 1955 as part of the program to populate the area with Jewish refugees from North Africa and Jewish immigrants from India.

Sephardi Jews

SephardicSephardiSephardic Jews
Following their expulsion from Iberia in 1492 by the Alhambra Decree, a few families of Sephardi Jews eventually made their way to Cochin in the 16th century.
A few of the Eastern Sephardim followed the spice trade routes as far as the Malabar coast of southern India, where they settled among the established Cochin Jewish community, again imparting their culture and customs to the local Jews.. Additionally, there was a large presence of Jews and crypto-Jews of Portuguese origin in the Portuguese colony of Goa.

Nevatim

Many of the migrants joined the moshavim (agricultural settlements) of Nevatim, Shahar, Yuval, and Mesilat Zion.
Although both were dismantled after the war, Nevatim was re-established at a slightly different location in 1954 by Cochin Jews, who had immigrated from Kochi, India.

Mesilat Zion

Many of the migrants joined the moshavim (agricultural settlements) of Nevatim, Shahar, Yuval, and Mesilat Zion.
After a few years the founders left and were replaced by Cochin Jews.

Solomon

King SolomonSalomonSchlomo
Cochin Jews (also known as Malabar Jews or Kochinim, from Yehudey Kochin), are the oldest group of Jews in India, with roots that are claimed to date back to the time of King Solomon.

South India

Southern IndiaSouth IndianPeninsular India
The Cochin Jews settled in the Kingdom of Cochin in South India, now part of the state of Kerala.

Benjamin of Tudela

Benjamin de TudelaBenjamin TudelaBenjamin of Tuldela
The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela, speaking of Kollam (Quilon) on the Malabar Coast, writes in his Itinerary: "...throughout the island, including all the towns thereof, live several thousand Israelites. The inhabitants are all black, and the Jews also. The latter are good and benevolent. They know the law of Moses and the prophets, and to a small extent the Talmud and Halacha."

Kollam

QuilonKollam cityCity of Kollam
The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela, speaking of Kollam (Quilon) on the Malabar Coast, writes in his Itinerary: "...throughout the island, including all the towns thereof, live several thousand Israelites. The inhabitants are all black, and the Jews also. The latter are good and benevolent. They know the law of Moses and the prophets, and to a small extent the Talmud and Halacha."

Israelites

IsraeliteChildren of IsraelIsrael
The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela, speaking of Kollam (Quilon) on the Malabar Coast, writes in his Itinerary: "...throughout the island, including all the towns thereof, live several thousand Israelites. The inhabitants are all black, and the Jews also. The latter are good and benevolent. They know the law of Moses and the prophets, and to a small extent the Talmud and Halacha."