Codec listening test

listening testsscientific listening tests
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency.wikipedia
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MUSHRA

Commonly used methods are known as "ABX" or "ABC/HR" or "MUSHRA".
MUSHRA stands for MUltiple Stimuli with Hidden Reference and Anchor and is a methodology for conducting a codec listening test to evaluate the perceived quality of the output from lossy audio compression algorithms.

Musepack

MPC.mpcMPC/Musepack/Mpeg+
Popular formats compared in these tests include MP3, AAC (and extensions), Vorbis, Musepack, and WMA.
Nevertheless, various listening tests have been conducted in which Musepack has performed well at both lower and higher bitrates.

Comparison of audio coding formats

audio
Comparison of audio coding formats
For listening tests comparing the perceived audio quality of audio formats and codecs, see the article Codec listening test.

Transparency (data compression)

transparenttransparencydata compression transparency
If sample X cannot be determined reliably with a low p-value in a predetermined number of trials, then the null hypothesis cannot be rejected and it cannot be proved that there is a perceptible difference between samples A and B. This usually indicates that the encoded version will actually be transparent to the listener.
*Codec listening test

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency.

Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordings
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency.

Codec

codecsdecoderdecoders
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency.

Fidelity

lo-filow fidelitylo fi
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency.

Blinded experiment

double-blinddouble blindblinded
Most tests take the form of a double-blind comparison.

ABX test

ABXABX listening testsABX method
Commonly used methods are known as "ABX" or "ABC/HR" or "MUSHRA".

P-value

p''-valuepp''-values
If sample X cannot be determined reliably with a low p-value in a predetermined number of trials, then the null hypothesis cannot be rejected and it cannot be proved that there is a perceptible difference between samples A and B. This usually indicates that the encoded version will actually be transparent to the listener.

Null hypothesis

nullnull hypotheseshypotheses
If sample X cannot be determined reliably with a low p-value in a predetermined number of trials, then the null hypothesis cannot be rejected and it cannot be proved that there is a perceptible difference between samples A and B. This usually indicates that the encoded version will actually be transparent to the listener.

Bit rate

bitratedata ratedata transfer rate
To obtain meaningful results, listening tests must compare codecs' performance at similar or identical bitrates, since the audio quality produced by any lossy encoder will be trivially improved by increasing the bitrate.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
A codec listening test is a scientific study designed to compare two or more lossy audio codecs, usually with respect to perceived fidelity or compression efficiency. To obtain meaningful results, listening tests must compare codecs' performance at similar or identical bitrates, since the audio quality produced by any lossy encoder will be trivially improved by increasing the bitrate.

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadmp3s
Popular formats compared in these tests include MP3, AAC (and extensions), Vorbis, Musepack, and WMA. Many encoder and decoder implementations (both proprietary and open source) exist for some formats, such as MP3, which is the oldest and best-known format still in widespread use today.

Advanced Audio Coding

AACAAC/AAC+/eAAC+.aac
Popular formats compared in these tests include MP3, AAC (and extensions), Vorbis, Musepack, and WMA.

Windows Media Audio

WMAXMA.wma
Popular formats compared in these tests include MP3, AAC (and extensions), Vorbis, Musepack, and WMA.

Cook Codec

CookCook'' codecRealAudio Gecko
The RealAudio Gecko, ATRAC3, QDesign, and mp3PRO formats appear in some tests, despite much lower adoption.

Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding

ATRACATRAC3Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC)
The RealAudio Gecko, ATRAC3, QDesign, and mp3PRO formats appear in some tests, despite much lower adoption.

QDesign

QDM2
The RealAudio Gecko, ATRAC3, QDesign, and mp3PRO formats appear in some tests, despite much lower adoption.

Mp3PRO

very old software encoder/player
The RealAudio Gecko, ATRAC3, QDesign, and mp3PRO formats appear in some tests, despite much lower adoption.

Proprietary software

Proprietaryclosed-sourceClosed source
Many encoder and decoder implementations (both proprietary and open source) exist for some formats, such as MP3, which is the oldest and best-known format still in widespread use today.

Open-source software

open sourceopen-sourceopen source software
Many encoder and decoder implementations (both proprietary and open source) exist for some formats, such as MP3, which is the oldest and best-known format still in widespread use today.